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close(2)							      close(2)

       close - Close the file associated with a file descriptor

       #include <unistd.h>

       int close(
	       int filedes );

       Interfaces  documented on this reference page conform to industry stan‐
       dards as follows:

       close(): XSH4.0, XSH4.2, XSH5.0, XNS4.0, XNS5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page	 for  more  information	 about
       industry standards and associated tags.

       Specifies a valid open file descriptor.

       The close() function closes the file associated with the filedes param‐

       All regions of a file specified by  the	filedes	 parameter  that  this
       process	has  previously locked with the lockf() function are unlocked.
       This occurs even if the process still has the file open by another file

       When  all  file descriptors associated with a pipe or FIFO special file
       have been closed, any data remaining in the pipe or FIFO is  discarded.
       When  all  file descriptors associated with an open file descriptor are
       closed, the open file descriptor is freed. If the  link	count  of  the
       file  is	 0  (zero)  when all file descriptors associated with the file
       have been closed, the space occupied by the file is freed and the  file
       is no longer accessible.

       When  the  close()  function needs to block, only the calling thread is
       suspended rather than all threads in the calling process.

       The last close() for a stream causes the stream associated with	fildes
       to  be  dismantled.  Dismantling	 includes  popping  any modules on the
       stream and closing the driver. If O_NDELAY and O_NONBLOCK are clear and
       there are no signals posted for the stream, close() waits up to 15 sec‐
       onds for each module to drain and up to 15 seconds for each  driver  to
       drain.  If the O_NDELAY or the O_NONBLOCK option is set or if there are
       any pending signals, close() does not wait for  output  to  drain,  and
       dismantles the stream immediately. If a STREAMS file is closed, and the
       calling process had previously registered to receive a  SIGPOLL	signal
       [see  signal()]	for  events associated with that file [see I_SETSIG in
       streamio(7)], the calling process is unregistered for events associated
       with the file.

       For  sockets  (fildes  refers  to a socket), a call to close causes the
       socket to be destroyed. For connection-oriented sockets that  have  the
       SOCK_LINGER  option set and have untransmitted data, the close function
       blocks for the period of time specified by the  linger  interval	 until
       all data is transmitted.

       Upon successful completion, a value of 0 (zero) is returned. Otherwise,
       a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

       If the close() function fails, errno may be set to one of the following
       values: The filedes parameter is not a valid open file descriptor.  The
       close() function was interrupted by a signal which was caught.  A  read
       or  write  physical  I/O	 error.	  [Tru64  UNIX]	 fildes is on a remote
       machine and the link to that machine is no longer active.

       [Tru64 UNIX]   A close() function on an NFS file system waits  for  all
       outstanding  I/O to complete. If any operation completes with an error,
       the error will be returned by close(). The possible  errors  depend  on
       the  NFS	 server	 implementation,  but  the most likely errors are: The
       write has failed because the user's  disk  block	 quota	is  exhausted.
       Attempted  to  write a file that exceeds the maximum file size.	A read
       or write physical I/O error.  Attempted to write on a full file system.

       Functions: exec(2), fcntl(2), lockf(3),	open(2),  pipe(2),  socket(2),

       Standards: standards(5).

       Network Programmer's Guide

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