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CI(1)									 CI(1)

       ci - check in RCS revisions

       ci [options] file ...

       ci  stores new revisions into RCS files.	 Each pathname matching an RCS
       suffix is taken to be an RCS file.  All others are assumed to be	 work‐
       ing  files  containing new revisions.  ci deposits the contents of each
       working file into the corresponding RCS file.  If only a	 working  file
       is  given, ci tries to find the corresponding RCS file in an RCS subdi‐
       rectory and then in the working file's directory.   For	more  details,
       see FILE NAMING below.

       For  ci	to work, the caller's login must be on the access list, except
       if the access list is empty or the caller is the superuser or the owner
       of  the	file.  To append a new revision to an existing branch, the tip
       revision on that branch must be locked by the caller.  Otherwise,  only
       a  new branch can be created.  This restriction is not enforced for the
       owner of the file if non-strict locking is used (see rcs(1)).   A  lock
       held by someone else may be broken with the rcs command.

       Unless  the  -f	option	is given, ci checks whether the revision to be
       deposited differs from the preceding one.  If not, instead of  creating
       a new revision ci reverts to the preceding one.	To revert, ordinary ci
       removes the working file and any lock; ci -l keeps  and	ci -u  removes
       any  lock,  and	then  they both generate a new working file much as if
       co -l or co -u had  been	 applied  to  the  preceding  revision.	  When
       reverting, any -n and -s options apply to the preceding revision.

       For  each  revision  deposited,	ci prompts for a log message.  The log
       message should summarize the change and must be terminated  by  end-of-
       file or by a line containing . by itself.  If several files are checked
       in ci asks whether to reuse the previous log message.  If the  standard
       input is not a terminal, ci suppresses the prompt and uses the same log
       message for all files.  See also -m.

       If the RCS file does not exist, ci creates it and deposits the contents
       of the working file as the initial revision (default number: 1.1).  The
       access list is initialized to empty.  Instead of the  log  message,  ci
       requests descriptive text (see -t below).

       The  number  rev	 of  the deposited revision can be given by any of the
       options -f, -I, -k, -l, -M, -q,	-r,  or	 -u.   rev  may	 be  symbolic,
       numeric, or mixed.  If rev is $, ci determines the revision number from
       keyword values in the working file.

       If rev is a revision number, it must be higher than the latest  one  on
       the branch to which rev belongs, or must start a new branch.

       If  rev	is a branch rather than a revision number, the new revision is
       appended to that branch.	 The level number is obtained by  incrementing
       the  tip revision number of that branch.	 If rev indicates a non-exist‐
       ing branch, that branch is created with the initial  revision  numbered

       If  rev is omitted, ci tries to derive the new revision number from the
       caller's last lock.  If the caller has locked the  tip  revision	 of  a
       branch,	the new revision is appended to that branch.  The new revision
       number is obtained by incrementing the tip  revision  number.   If  the
       caller locked a non-tip revision, a new branch is started at that revi‐
       sion by incrementing the highest branch number at that  revision.   The
       default initial branch and level numbers are 1.

       If  rev	is  omitted  and the caller has no lock, but owns the file and
       locking is not set to strict, then the  revision	 is  appended  to  the
       default branch (normally the trunk; see the -b option of rcs(1)).

       Exception:  On the trunk, revisions can be appended to the end, but not

	      checks in a  revision,  releases	the  corresponding  lock,  and
	      removes the working file.	 This is the default.

	      The  -r  option has an unusual meaning in ci.  In other RCS com‐
	      mands, -r merely specifies a revision number, but in ci it  also
	      releases	a  lock	 and  removes  the working file.  See -u for a
	      tricky example.

	      works like -r, except it performs an additional  co -l  for  the
	      deposited revision.  Thus, the deposited revision is immediately
	      checked out again and locked.  This is useful for saving a revi‐
	      sion  although  one  wants  to  continue	editing	 it  after the

	      works like -l, except that the deposited revision is not locked.
	      This lets one read the working file immediately after checkin.

	      The  -l,	-r, and -u options are mutually exclusive and silently
	      override each other.  For example,  ci -u -r  is	equivalent  to
	      ci -r because -r overrides -u.

	      forces  a	 deposit; the new revision is deposited even it is not
	      different from the preceding one.

	      searches the working file for keyword values  to	determine  its
	      revision	number,	 creation date, state, and author (see co(1)),
	      and assigns these values to the deposited revision, rather  than
	      computing	 them locally.	It also generates a default login mes‐
	      sage noting the login of the caller and the actual checkin date.
	      This  option  is	useful	for software distribution.  A revision
	      that is sent to several sites should be checked in with  the  -k
	      option  at  these	 sites	to preserve the original number, date,
	      author, and state.  The extracted keyword values and the default
	      log  message  may be overridden with the options -d, -m, -s, -w,
	      and any option that carries a revision number.

	      quiet mode; diagnostic output is not printed.  A	revision  that
	      is not different from the preceding one is not deposited, unless
	      -f is given.

	      interactive mode; the user is prompted and  questioned  even  if
	      the standard input is not a terminal.

	      uses  date for the checkin date and time.	 The date is specified
	      in free format as explained in co(1).  This is useful for	 lying
	      about  the checkin date, and for -k if no date is available.  If
	      date is empty, the working file's time of last  modification  is

	      Set the modification time on any new working file to be the date
	      of the retrieved revision.  For example, ci -d -M -u f does  not
	      alter  f's modification time, even if f's contents change due to
	      keyword substitution.  Use this option with care; it can confuse

       -mmsg  uses the string msg as the log message for all revisions checked

       -nname assigns the symbolic name name to the number of  the  checked-in
	      revision.	  ci  prints  an  error	 message  if  name  is already
	      assigned to another number.

       -Nname same as -n, except that it overrides a  previous	assignment  of

	      sets  the	 state	of  the	 checked-in revision to the identifier
	      state.  The default state is Exp.

       -tfile writes descriptive text from the contents of the named file into
	      the  RCS	file,  deleting	 the  existing text.  The file may not
	      begin with -.

	      Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS file, delet‐
	      ing the existing text.

	      The -t option, in both its forms, has effect only during an ini‐
	      tial checkin; it is silently ignored otherwise.

	      During the initial checkin, if -t is not given, ci  obtains  the
	      text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line
	      containing . by itself.  The user is prompted for	 the  text  if
	      interaction is possible; see -I.

	      For backward compatibility with older versions of RCS, a bare -t
	      option is ignored.

	      uses login for the author field of the deposited revision.  Use‐
	      ful  for	lying  about  the  author,  and for -k if no author is

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

	      specifies the suffixes for RCS files.  A nonempty suffix matches
	      any  pathname ending in the suffix.  An empty suffix matches any
	      pathname of the form RCS/file or path/RCS/file.  The  -x	option
	      can  specify  a  list  of suffixes separated by /.  For example,
	      -x,v/ specifies two suffixes: ,v and the empty suffix.   If  two
	      or  more	suffixes  are  specified, they are tried in order when
	      looking for an RCS file; the first one that works	 is  used  for
	      that  file.  If no RCS file is found but an RCS file can be cre‐
	      ated, the suffixes are tried in order to determine the  new  RCS
	      file's  name.   The  default for suffixes is installation-depen‐
	      dent; normally it is ,v/ for hosts like Unix that permit	commas
	      in  file	names,	and  is empty (i.e. just the empty suffix) for
	      other hosts.

       Pairs of RCS files and working files may be  specified  in  three  ways
       (see also the example section).

       1)  Both the RCS file and the working file are given.  The RCS pathname
       is of the form path1/workfileX and the working pathname is of the  form
       path2/workfile  where  path1/  and  path2/  are	(possibly different or
       empty) paths, workfile is a filename, and X is an RCS suffix.  If X  is
       empty, path1/ must be RCS/ or must end in /RCS/.

       2) Only the RCS file is given.  Then the working file is created in the
       current directory and its name is derived from the name of the RCS file
       by removing path1/ and the suffix X.

       3) Only the working file is given.  Then ci considers each RCS suffix X
       in turn, looking for an RCS file of the form path2/RCS/workfileX or (if
       the former is not found and X is nonempty) path2/workfileX.

       If  the RCS file is specified without a path in 1) and 2), ci looks for
       the RCS file first in the directory  ./RCS  and	then  in  the  current

       ci  reports  an	error  if  an attempt to open an RCS file fails for an
       unusual reason, even if the RCS file's pathname is just one of  several
       possibilities.	For  example,  to  suppress  use  of RCS commands in a
       directory d, create a regular file named d/RCS so that casual  attempts
       to use RCS commands in d fail because d/RCS is not a directory.

       Suppose ,v is an RCS suffix and the current directory contains a subdi‐
       rectory RCS with an RCS file io.c,v.  Then each of the  following  com‐
       mands  check  in a copy of io.c into RCS/io.c,v as the latest revision,
       removing io.c.

	      ci  io.c;	   ci  RCS/io.c,v;   ci	 io.c,v;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c,v;    ci  io.c	 io.c,v;
	      ci  RCS/io.c,v  io.c;    ci  io.c,v  io.c;

       Suppose instead that the empty suffix is an RCS suffix and the  current
       directory  contains a subdirectory RCS with an RCS file io.c.  The each
       of the following commands checks in a new revision.

	      ci  io.c;	   ci  RCS/io.c;
	      ci  io.c	RCS/io.c;
	      ci  RCS/io.c  io.c;

       An RCS file created by ci inherits the  read  and  execute  permissions
       from  the  working  file.  If the RCS file exists already, ci preserves
       its read and execute permissions.  ci always turns off all  write  per‐
       missions of RCS files.

       Several	temporary files may be created in the directory containing the
       working file, and also in the temporary	directory  (see	 TMPDIR	 under
       ENVIRONMENT).   A  semaphore file or files are created in the directory
       containing the RCS file.	 With a nonempty suffix, the  semaphore	 names
       begin with the first character of the suffix; therefore, do not specify
       a suffix whose first character could be that  of	 a  working  filename.
       With  an	 empty suffix, the semaphore names end with _ so working file‐
       names should not end in _.

       ci never changes an RCS or working file.	 Normally, ci unlinks the file
       and  creates  a new one; but instead of breaking a chain of one or more
       symbolic links to an RCS file, it unlinks the destination file instead.
       Therefore,  ci breaks any hard or symbolic links to any working file it
       changes; and hard links to RCS  files  are  ineffective,	 but  symbolic
       links to RCS files are preserved.

       The  effective user must be able to search and write the directory con‐
       taining the RCS file.  Normally, the real user must be able to read the
       RCS  and working files and to search and write the directory containing
       the working file;  however,  some  older	 hosts	cannot	easily	switch
       between	real and effective users, so on these hosts the effective user
       is used for all accesses.  The effective user is the same as  the  real
       user  unless  your  copies  of  ci  and	co have setuid privileges.  As
       described in the next section, these privileges yield extra security if
       the  effective user owns all RCS files and directories, and if only the
       effective user can write RCS directories.

       Users can control access to RCS files by setting the permissions of the
       directory  containing  the  files;  only users with write access to the
       directory can use RCS commands to change its RCS files.	 For  example,
       in  hosts that allow a user to belong to several groups, one can make a
       group's RCS directories writable to that	 group	only.	This  approach
       suffices	 for informal projects, but it means that any group member can
       arbitrarily change the group's RCS files,  and  can  even  remove  them
       entirely.   Hence more formal projects sometimes distinguish between an
       RCS administrator, who can change the RCS  files	 at  will,  and	 other
       project	members,  who  can check in new revisions but cannot otherwise
       change the RCS files.

       To prevent anybody but their RCS administrator from deleting revisions,
       a set of users can employ setuid privileges as follows.

       · Check	that  the host supports RCS setuid use.	 Consult a trustworthy
	 expert if there are any doubts.  It is best if the  seteuid()	system
	 call  works  as  described  in Posix 1003.1a Draft 5, because RCS can
	 switch back and forth easily between real and effective  users,  even
	 if the real user is root.  If not, the second best is if the setuid()
	 system call supports saved setuid (the {_POSIX_SAVED_IDS} behavior of
	 Posix 1003.1-1990); this fails only if the real user is root.	If RCS
	 detects any failure in setuid, it quits immediately.

       · Choose a user A to serve as RCS administrator for the set  of	users.
	 Only  A  will	be  able  to  invoke the rcs command on the users' RCS
	 files.	 A should not be root or any other user with  special  powers.
	 Mutually  suspicious  sets  of users should use different administra‐

       · Choose a path name B that will be a directory of files to be executed
	 by the users.

       · Have  A  set up B to contain copies of ci and co that are setuid to A
	 by copying the commands from their standard installation directory  D
	 as follows:

	      mkdir  B
	      cp  D/c[io]  B
	      chmod  go-w,u+s  B/c[io]

       · Have each user prepend B to their path as follows:

	      PATH=B:$PATH;  export  PATH  # ordinary shell
	      set  path=(B  $path)  # C shell

       · Have  A  create  each	RCS directory R with write access only to A as

	      mkdir  R
	      chmod  go-w  R

       · If you want to let only certain users read the	 RCS  files,  put  the
	 users into a group G, and have A further protect the RCS directory as

	      chgrp  G	R
	      chmod  g-w,o-rwx	R

       · Have A copy old RCS files (if any) into R,  to	 ensure	 that  A  owns

       · An RCS file's access list limits who can check in and lock revisions.
	 The default access list is empty, which grants checkin access to any‐
	 one  who  can	read  the RCS file.  If you want limit checkin access,
	 have A invoke	rcs -a	on  the	 file;	see  rcs(1).   In  particular,
	 rcs -e -aA limits access to just A.

       · Have  A  initialize  any  new	RCS  files  with rcs -i before initial
	 checkin, adding the -a option if you want to limit checkin access.

       · Give setuid privileges only to ci, co, and rcsclean; do not give them
	 to rcs or to any other command.

       · Do  not  use  other setuid commands to invoke RCS commands; setuid is
	 trickier than you think!

	      options prepended to the argument list, separated by spaces.   A
	      backslash	 escapes spaces within an option.  The RCSINIT options
	      are prepended to the argument lists of most RCS commands.	  Use‐
	      ful RCSINIT options include -q, -V, and -x.

       TMPDIR Name  of	the  temporary directory.  If not set, the environment
	      variables TMP and TEMP are inspected instead and the first value
	      found  is	 taken;	 if  none  of  them  are set, a host-dependent
	      default is used, typically /tmp.

       For each revision, ci prints the RCS file, the working  file,  and  the
       number of both the deposited and the preceding revision.	 The exit sta‐
       tus is zero if and only if all operations were successful.

       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Revision Number: 5.9; Release Date: 1991/10/07.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 by Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright © 1990, 1991 by Paul Eggert.

       co(1), ident(1), make(1), rcs(1), rcsclean(1), rcsdiff(1), rcsintro(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       & Experience 15, 7 (July 1985), 637-654.

GNU				  1991/10/07				 CI(1)

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