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cpp(1)				   GNU Tools				cpp(1)

       cccp, cpp - the GNU C-compatible compiler preprocessor

       cccp   [-$] [-C] [-Dname[=definition]] [-dD] [-dM] [-I directory] [-H]
	      [-I-] [-imacros file] [-include file] [-lang-c] [-lang-c++]
	      [-lang-objc] [-lang-objc++] [-lint] [-M] [-MD] [-MM] [-MMD]
	      [-nostdinc] [-P] [-pedantic] [-pedantic-errors] [-trigraphs]
	      [-Uname] [-undef] [-Wtrigraphs] [-Wcomment] [-Wall]
	      [infile|-] [outfile|-]

       The C preprocessor is a macro processor that is used  automatically  by
       the C compiler to transform your program before actual compilation.  It
       is called a macro processor because it allows  you  to  define  macros,
       which are brief abbreviations for longer constructs.

       The  C  preprocessor provides four separate facilities that you can use
       as you see fit:

       ·      Inclusion of header files.  These are files of declarations that
	      can be substituted into your program.

       ·      Macro expansion.	You can define macros, which are abbreviations
	      for arbitrary fragments of C code, and then the  C  preprocessor
	      will  replace  the  macros with their definitions throughout the

       ·      Conditional compilation.	Using special  preprocessor  commands,
	      you  can	include	 or  exclude parts of the program according to
	      various conditions.

       ·      Line control.  If you use a  program  to	combine	 or  rearrange
	      source  files  into an intermediate file which is then compiled,
	      you can use line control to inform the compiler  of  where  each
	      source line originally came from.

       C  preprocessors	 vary  in some details.	 For a full explanation of the
       GNU C preprocessor, see the info file `', or the manual	The  C
       Preprocessor.   Both  of	 these	are  built from the same documentation
       source file, `cpp.texinfo'.  The GNU C preprocessor provides a superset
       of the features of ANSI Standard C.

       ANSI Standard C requires the rejection of many harmless constructs com‐
       monly used by today's C programs.  Such incompatibility would be incon‐
       venient	for  users,  so the GNU C preprocessor is configured to accept
       these constructs by default.  Strictly speaking, to get	ANSI  Standard
       C, you must use the options `-trigraphs', `-undef' and `-pedantic', but
       in practice the consequences of having strict ANSI Standard C  make  it
       undesirable to do this.

       Most  often when you use the C preprocessor you will not have to invoke
       it explicitly: the C compiler will do so automatically.	 However,  the
       preprocessor is sometimes useful individually.

       When  you call the preprocessor individually, either name (cpp or cccp)
       will do—they are completely synonymous.

       The C preprocessor expects two file names as arguments, infile and out‐
       file.   The  preprocessor reads infile together with any other files it
       specifies with `#include'.  All the output generated  by	 the  combined
       input files is written in outfile.

       Either infile or outfile may be `-', which as infile means to read from
       standard input and as outfile means to write to standard output.	 Also,
       if  outfile  or	both  file  names are omitted, the standard output and
       standard input are used for the omitted file names.

       Here is a table of command options  accepted  by	 the  C	 preprocessor.
       These  options  can  also be given when compiling a C program; they are
       passed along automatically to the preprocessor when it  is  invoked  by
       the compiler.

       -P     Inhibit  generation of `#'-lines with line-number information in
	      the output from the preprocessor.	 This  might  be  useful  when
	      running  the  preprocessor  on  something that is not C code and
	      will be sent to  a  program  which  might	 be  confused  by  the

       -C     Do  not  discard comments: pass them through to the output file.
	      Comments appearing in arguments of a macro call will  be	copied
	      to the output before the expansion of the macro call.

	      Process ANSI standard trigraph sequences.	 These are three-char‐
	      acter sequences, all starting with `??', that are defined by AN‐
	      SI  C to stand for single characters.  For example, `??/' stands
	      for `\', so `'??/n'' is a	 character  constant  for  a  newline.
	      Strictly	speaking,  the GNU C preprocessor does not support all
	      programs in ANSI Standard C unless `-trigraphs' is used, but  if
	      you ever notice the difference it will be with relief.

	      You don't want to know any more about trigraphs.

	      Issue  warnings required by the ANSI C standard in certain cases
	      such as when text other than a comment follows `#else' or	 `#en‐

	      Like  `-pedantic',  except  that errors are produced rather than

	      Warn if any trigraphs are encountered  (assuming	they  are  en‐


	      Warn  whenever  a	 comment-start sequence `/*' appears in a com‐
	      ment.  (Both forms have the same effect).

       -Wall  Requests both `-Wtrigraphs' and `-Wcomment' (but	not  `-Wtradi‐

	      Warn  about certain constructs that behave differently in tradi‐
	      tional and ANSI C.

       -I directory
	       Add the directory directory to the end of the list of  directo‐
	      ries to be searched for header files.  This can be used to over‐
	      ride a system header file, substituting your own version,	 since
	      these directories are searched before the system header file di‐
	      rectories.  If you use more than one `-I' option,	 the  directo‐
	      ries are scanned in left-to-right order; the standard system di‐
	      rectories come after.

       -I-    Any directories specified with `-I' options before the `-I-' op‐
	      tion  are	 searched  only for the case of `#include file"'; they
	      are not searched for `#include <file>'.

	      If additional directories are specified with `-I' options	 after
	      the `-I-', these directories are searched for all `#include' di‐

	      In addition, the `-I-' option inhibits the use  of  the  current
	      directory	 as  the  first search directory for `#include file"'.
	      Therefore, the current directory is searched only if it  is  re‐
	      quested  explicitly with `-I.'.  Specifying both `-I-' and `-I.'
	      allows you to control precisely which directories	 are  searched
	      before the current one and which are searched after.

	      Do  not search the standard system directories for header files.
	      Only the directories you have specified with `-I'	 options  (and
	      the current directory, if appropriate) are searched.

       -D name
	       Predefine name as a macro, with definition `1'.

       -D name=definition
		Predefine  name as a macro, with definition definition.	 There
	      are no restrictions on the contents of definition,  but  if  you
	      are invoking the preprocessor from a shell or shell-like program
	      you may need to use the shell's quoting syntax to protect	 char‐
	      acters  such  as spaces that have a meaning in the shell syntax.
	      If you use more than one `-D' for the same name,	the  rightmost
	      definition takes effect.

       -U name
	       Do not predefine name.  If both `-U' and `-D' are specified for
	      one name, the `-U' beats the `-D' and the	 name  is  not	prede‐

       -undef Do not predefine any nonstandard macros.

       -dM    Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a list
	      of `#define' commands for all the macros defined during the exe‐
	      cution  of  the preprocessor, including predefined macros.  This
	      gives you a way of finding out what is predefined in  your  ver‐
	      sion of the preprocessor; assuming you have no file `foo.h', the

	      touch foo.h; cpp -dM foo.h

	      will show the values of any predefined macros.

       -dD    Like `-dM' except in two respects: it does not include the  pre‐
	      defined  macros,	and it outputs both the `#define' commands and
	      the result of preprocessing.  Both kinds of  output  go  to  the
	      standard output file.

       -M     Instead of outputting the result of preprocessing, output a rule
	      suitable for make describing the dependencies of the main source
	      file.  The preprocessor outputs one make rule containing the ob‐
	      ject file name for that source file, a colon, and the  names  of
	      all  the	included files.	 If there are many included files then
	      the rule is split into several lines using `'-newline.

	      This feature is used in automatic updating of makefiles.

       -MM    Like `-M' but mention only the  files  included  with  `#include
	      "file"'.	 System	 header	 files included with `#include <file>'
	      are omitted.

       -MD    Like `-M' but the dependency information	is  written  to	 files
	      with  names  made	 by replacing `.c' with `.d' at the end of the
	      input file names.	 This is in addition to compiling the file  as
	      specified—`-MD'  does  not  inhibit ordinary compilation the way
	      `-M' does.

	      In Mach, you can use the utility md to merge the `.d' files into
	      a single dependency file suitable for using with the `make' com‐

       -MMD   Like `-MD' except mention only user  header  files,  not	system
	      header files.

       -H     Print  the  name	of each header file used, in addition to other
	      normal activities.

       -imacros file
	       Process file as input, discarding the resulting output,	before
	      processing the regular input file.  Because the output generated
	      from file is discarded, the only effect of `-imacros file' is to
	      make  the	 macros	 defined in file available for use in the main
	      input.  The preprocessor evaluates any `-D' and `-U' options  on
	      the command line before processing `-imacros file' .

       -include file
	      Process file as input, and include all the resulting output, be‐
	      fore processing the regular input file.




	      Specify the source language.  `-lang-c++' makes the preprocessor
	      handle  C++  comment  syntax, and includes extra default include
	      directories for C++, and `-lang-objc' enables  the  Objective  C
	      `#import'	 directive.   `-lang-c'	 explicitly  turns off both of
	      these extensions, and `-lang-objc++' enables both.

	      These options are generated by the compiler driver gcc, but  not
	      passed from the `gcc' command line.

       -lint  Look  for	 commands to the program checker lint embedded in com‐
	      ments, and emit them preceded by `#pragma lint'.	 For  example,
	      the   comment   `/*   NOTREACHED	 */'   becomes	`#pragma  lint

	      This option is available only when you call  cpp	directly;  gcc
	      will not pass it from its command line.

       -$     Forbid the use of `$' in identifiers.  This is required for ANSI
	      conformance.  gcc automatically supplies this option to the pre‐
	      processor	 if you specify `-ansi', but gcc doesn't recognize the
	      `-$' option itself—to use it without the other effects of	 `-an‐
	      si', you must call the preprocessor directly.

       `Cpp' entry in info; The C Preprocessor, Richard M. Stallman.
       gcc(1);	`Gcc'  entry  in  info;	 Using and Porting GNU CC (for version
       2.0), Richard M. Stallman.

       Copyright (c) 1991, 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  provided	 the  copyright	 notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the en‐
       tire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permis‐
       sion notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manu‐
       al into another language, under the above conditions for modified  ver‐
       sions,  except  that this permission notice may be included in transla‐
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi‐
       nal English.

GNU Tools			   2Jan1992				cpp(1)

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