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cat(1)									cat(1)

       cat - Concatenates or displays files

       cat [-benrstuv] file... | -

       The  cat command reads each specified file in sequence and writes it to
       standard output.

       Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry	 stan‐
       dards as follows:

       cat: XCU5.0

       Refer  to  the  standards(5)  reference page for more information about
       industry standards and associated tags.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Omits line numbers from blank lines when -n is specified.
       If  you	specify	 the -b option, the -n option is automatically invoked
       with it.	 [Tru64 UNIX]  Same as the -v option with a  $	(dollar	 sign)
       character  displayed  at	 the end of each line.	[Tru64 UNIX]  Displays
       output lines preceded by line numbers, numbered	sequentially  from  1.
       [Tru64  UNIX]  Replaces multiple consecutive empty lines with one empty
       line, so that there is never more than one  empty  line	between	 lines
       containing characters.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Does not display a message if cat
       cannot find an input file. (Silent option.)  [Tru64 UNIX]  Same as  the
       -v  option,  with the tab character printed as <Ctrl-i> (^I).  Does not
       buffer output. Writes bytes from the  input  file  to  standard	output
       without	delay  as  each	 is  read.  [Tru64 UNIX]  Displays nonprinting
       characters so that they are visible.

       The name of the file to be displayed.

	      If you do not specify a file or if you specify - (dash)  instead
	      of  file, cat reads from standard input. The cat command accepts
	      multiple occurrences of - (dash) as a file argument.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The cat command is frequently used	 with  >  (redirection
       symbol) to concatenate the specified files and write them to the speci‐
       fied destination.  (See CAUTIONS.) The cat command is also used with >>
       to append a file to another file.

       Do not redirect output to one of the input files using the > (redirect‐
       ion symbol).  If you do this, you lose the original data in  the	 input
       file  because the shell truncates it before cat can read it.  (See also
       the sh command.)

       The following exit values  are  returned:  Successful  completion.   An
       error occurred.

       To display the file notes, enter: cat notes

	      If  the  file  is	 longer	 than one screenful, it scrolls by too
	      quickly to read. To display a file one page at a time,  use  the
	      more  command.   To  concatenate	several files, enter: cat sec‐
	      tion1.1 section1.2 section1.3 > section1

	      This creates a file named section1 that is a copy of  section1.1
	      followed	by  section1.2 and section1.3.	To suppress error mes‐
	      sages about files that do not exist, enter:  cat	-s  section2.1
	      section2.2 section2.3 > section2

	      If  section2.1  does  not	 exist, this command concatenates sec‐
	      tion2.2 and section2.3.  Note that the message goes to  standard
	      error,  so it does not appear in the output file.	 The result is
	      the same if you do not use the -s option, except that  cat  dis‐
	      plays the error message: cat: cannot open section2.1

	      You  may	want  to suppress this message with the -s option when
	      you use the cat command in shell procedures.  To append one file
	      to the end of another, enter: cat section1.4 >> section1

	      The  >>  in  this command specifies that a copy of section1.4 be
	      added to the end of section1.  If you want to replace the	 file,
	      use a single > symbol.  To add text to the end of a file, enter:
	      cat >> notes Get milk on the way home <Ctrl-d>

	      Get milk on the way home is added to the	end  of	 notes.	  With
	      this syntax, the cat command does not display a prompt; it waits
	      for you to enter	text.	Press  the  End-of-File	 key  sequence
	      (<Ctrl-d>	 above)	 to indicate you are finished.	To concatenate
	      several files with text entered from the	keyboard,  enter:  cat
	      section3.1 - section3.3 > section3

	      This  concatenates  section3.1, text from the keyboard, and sec‐
	      tion3.3 to create the file  section3.   To  concatenate  several
	      files  with  output  from	 another command, enter: ls | cat sec‐
	      tion4.1 - > section4

	      This copies section4.1, and then the output of the ls command to
	      the file section4.  To get two pieces of input from the terminal
	      (when standard input is a terminal) with a single command	 invo‐
	      cation, enter: cat start - middle - end > file1

	      If standard input is a regular file, however, the preceding com‐
	      mand  is	equivalent  to	the  following:	 cat  start  -	middle
	      /dev/null end > file1

	      This  is	because	 the entire contents of the file would be con‐
	      sumed by cat the first time it saw - (dash) as a file  argument.
	      An End-of-File condition would then be detected immediately when
	      - (dash) appeared the second time.

       The following environment variables affect the execution of  cat:  Pro‐
       vides  a	 default value for the internationalization variables that are
       unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding  value  from
       the  default  locale is used.  If any of the internationalization vari‐
       ables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of the
       variables  had been defined.  If set to a non-empty string value, over‐
       rides the values	 of  all  the  other  internationalization  variables.
       Determines  the	locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
       text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to	multi‐
       byte  characters	 in  arguments).  Determines the locale for the format
       and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.	Deter‐
       mines  the location of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MES‐

       Commands:  more(1), ksh(1), pack(1), pg(1), pr(1), Bourne shell sh(1b),
       POSIX shell sh(1p)

       Standards:  standards(5)


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