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bind(n)			     Tk Built-In Commands		       bind(n)


       bind - Arrange for X events to invoke Tcl scripts

       bind tag

       bind tag sequence

       bind tag sequence script

       bind tag sequence +script

       The  bind  command  associates Tcl scripts with X events.  If all three
       arguments are specified, bind will arrange for script (a Tcl script) to
       be  evaluated whenever the event(s) given by sequence occur in the win‐
       dow(s) identified by tag.  If script is prefixed with a ``+'', then  it
       is  appended  to	 any  existing binding for sequence;  otherwise script
       replaces any existing binding.  If script is an empty string  then  the
       current	binding	 for  sequence is destroyed, leaving sequence unbound.
       In all of the cases where a script argument is provided,	 bind  returns
       an empty string.

       If  sequence  is	 specified without a script, then the script currently
       bound to sequence is returned, or an empty string is returned if	 there
       is  no  binding for sequence.  If neither sequence nor script is speci‐
       fied, then the return value is  a  list	whose  elements	 are  all  the
       sequences for which there exist bindings for tag.

       The tag argument determines which window(s) the binding applies to.  If
       tag begins with a dot, as in .a.b.c, then it must be the path name  for
       a  window; otherwise it may be an arbitrary string.  Each window has an
       associated list of tags, and a binding applies to a  particular	window
       if its tag is among those specified for the window.  Although the bind‐
       tags command may be used to assign an arbitrary set of binding tags  to
       a window, the default binding tags provide the following behavior:

	      If  a  tag is the name of an internal window the binding applies
	      to that window.

	      If the tag is the name of a toplevel window the binding  applies
	      to the toplevel window and all its internal windows.

	      If  the  tag  is the name of a class of widgets, such as Button,
	      the binding applies to all widgets in that class;

	      If tag has the value all, the binding applies to all windows  in
	      the application.

       The  sequence  argument	specifies a sequence of one or more event pat‐
       terns, with optional white space between the patterns.  Each event pat‐ │
       tern  may take one of three forms.  In the simplest case it is a single
       printing ASCII character, such as a or [.  The character may not	 be  a
       space  character	 or  the  character <.	This form of pattern matches a
       KeyPress event for the particular character.  The second form  of  pat‐
       tern is longer but more general.	 It has the following syntax:
       The  entire  event pattern is surrounded by angle brackets.  Inside the
       angle brackets are zero or more modifiers, an event type, and an	 extra
       piece  of  information  (detail)	 identifying  a	 particular  button or
       keysym.	Any of the fields may be omitted, as long as at least  one  of
       type  and  detail  is  present.	 The fields must be separated by white
       space or dashes.							       │

       The third form of pattern is used to specify a user-defined, named vir‐ │
       tual event.  It has the following syntax:			       │
	      <<name>>							       │
       The  entire  virtual event pattern is surrounded by double angle brack‐ │
       ets.  Inside the angle brackets is the user-defined name of the virtual │
       event.  Modifiers, such as Shift or Control, may not be combined with a │
       virtual event to modify it.  Bindings on a virtual event may be created │
       before the virtual event is defined, and if the definition of a virtual │
       event changes dynamically, all windows bound to that virtual event will │
       respond immediately to the new definition.

       Modifiers    consist   of   any	 of   the   following	values:	  Con‐
       trol		    Mod2,    M2	   Shift		   Mod3,    M3
       Lock		       Mod4,  M4 Button1, B1		 Mod5, M5 But‐
       ton2,  B2	   Meta,  M   Button3,	 B3		Alt   Button4,
       B4	      Double  Button5,	B5	       Triple  Mod1,  M1 Where
       more than one value is listed, separated	 by  commas,  the  values  are
       equivalent.   Most  of  the modifiers have the obvious X meanings.  For
       example, Button1 requires that button 1 be  depressed  when  the	 event
       occurs.	 For  a	 binding  to match a given event, the modifiers in the
       event must include all of those specified in  the  event	 pattern.   An
       event  may also contain additional modifiers not specified in the bind‐
       ing.  For example, if button 1 is pressed while the shift  and  control
       keys are down, the pattern <Control-Button-1> will match the event, but
       <Mod1-Button-1> will not.  If no modifiers are specified, then any com‐
       bination of modifiers may be present in the event.

       Meta and M refer to whichever of the M1 through M5 modifiers is associ‐
       ated with the meta key(s) on the keyboard (keysyms Meta_R and  Meta_L).
       If there are no meta keys, or if they are not associated with any modi‐
       fiers, then Meta and M will not match any events.  Similarly,  the  Alt
       modifier refers to whichever modifier is associated with the alt key(s)
       on the keyboard (keysyms Alt_L and Alt_R).

       The Double and Triple modifiers are a convenience for specifying double
       mouse  clicks  and other repeated events. They cause a particular event
       pattern to be repeated 2 or 3 times, and also place a  time  and	 space
       requirement  on the sequence:  for a sequence of events to match a Dou‐
       ble or Triple pattern, all of the events must occur close  together  in
       time  and  without  substantial	mouse motion in between.  For example,
       <Double-Button-1> is equivalent to <Button-1><Button-1> with the	 extra
       time and space requirement.

       The  type  field	 may  be any of the standard X event types, with a few
       extra abbreviations.  The type field will also  accept  a  couple  non-
       standard	 X event types that were added to better support the Macintosh
       and Windows platforms.  Below is a list of all the valid	 types;	 where
       two    names    appear	 together,    they    are   synonyms.	 Acti‐
       vate	       Enter		  Map	     ButtonPress,	  But‐
       ton Expose	      Motion				     ButtonRe‐ │
       lease	   FocusIn	      MouseWheel     Circulate		 Focu‐
       sOut	      Property Colormap		   Gravity	      Reparent
       Configure	   KeyPress,	      Key	Unmap	       Deacti‐
       vate	     KeyRelease		Visibility Destroy	       Leave

       Most  of	 the above events have the same fields and behaviors as events │
       in the X Windowing system.  You can find more detailed descriptions  of │
       these  events in any X window programming book.	A couple of the events │
       are extensions to the X event system to support features unique to  the │
       Macintosh  and  Windows	platforms.  We provide a little more detail on │
       these events here.  These include:				       │

       Activate								       │

       Deactivate							       │
	    These two events are sent to every sub-window of a	toplevel  when │
	    they change state.	In addition to the focus Window, the Macintosh │
	    platform and Windows platforms have a notion of an	active	window │
	    (which  often  has but is not required to have the focus).	On the │
	    Macintosh, widgets in the active window have a  different  appear‐ │
	    ance than widgets in deactive windows.  The Activate event is sent │
	    to all the sub-windows in a toplevel when it  changes  from	 being │
	    deactive to active.	 Likewise, the Deactive event is sent when the │
	    window's state changes from active to deactive.  There are no use‐ │
	    ful	 percent  substitutions	 you  would make when binding to these │
	    events.							       │

       MouseWheel							       │
	    Some mice on the Windows platform support a mouse wheel  which  is │
	    used  for  scrolling  documents  without using the scrollbars.  By │
	    rolling the wheel, the system will generate MouseWheel events that │
	    the	 application  can use to scroll.  Like Key events the event is │
	    always routed to the window that currently	has  focus.  When  the │
	    event is received you can use the %D substitution to get the delta │
	    field for the event which is a integer value of  motion  that  the │
	    mouse  wheel  has  moved.  The smallest value for which the system │
	    will report is defined by the OS.  On Windows  95  &  98  machines │
	    this value is at least 120 before it is reported.  However, higher │
	    resolution devices may be available in the future.	 The  sign  of │
	    the	 value	determines  which direction your widget should scroll. │
	    Positive values should scroll up and negative values should scroll │

       The  last part of a long event specification is detail.	In the case of
       a ButtonPress or ButtonRelease event, it is  the	 number	 of  a	button
       (1-5).  If a button number is given, then only an event on that partic‐
       ular button will match;	if no button number is given, then an event on
       any  button will match.	Note:  giving a specific button number is dif‐
       ferent than specifying a button modifier; in the first case, it	refers
       to a button being pressed or released, while in the second it refers to
       some other button that is already depressed  when  the  matching	 event
       occurs.	If a button number is given then type may be omitted:  if will
       default to ButtonPress.	For example, the specifier <1>	is  equivalent
       to <ButtonPress-1>.

       If  the event type is KeyPress or KeyRelease, then detail may be speci‐
       fied in the form of an X keysym.	 Keysyms  are  textual	specifications
       for  particular keys on the keyboard; they include all the alphanumeric
       ASCII characters (e.g. ``a'' is the  keysym  for	 the  ASCII  character
       ``a''), plus descriptions for non-alphanumeric characters (``comma'' is
       the keysym for the comma character), plus descriptions for all the non-
       ASCII keys on the keyboard (``Shift_L'' is the keysm for the left shift
       key, and ``F1'' is the keysym for the F1 function key, if  it  exists).
       The complete list of keysyms is not presented here;  it is available in
       other X documentation and may vary from system to  system.   If	neces‐
       sary,  you  can	use  the  %K notation described below to print out the
       keysym name for a particular key.  If a keysym detail  is  given,  then
       the type field may be omitted;  it will default to KeyPress.  For exam‐
       ple, <Control-comma> is equivalent to <Control-KeyPress-comma>.

       The script argument to bind is a Tcl script,  which  will  be  executed
       whenever	 the given event sequence occurs.  Command will be executed in
       the same interpreter that the bind command was executed in, and it will
       run  at	global	level  (only global variables will be accessible).  If
       script contains any % characters, then the script will not be  executed
       directly.  Instead, a new script will be generated by replacing each %,
       and the character following  it,	 with  information  from  the  current
       event.	The  replacement  depends on the character following the %, as
       defined in the list below.  Unless otherwise indicated, the replacement
       string  is the decimal value of the given field from the current event.
       Some of the substitutions are only valid for certain types  of  events;
       if  they	 are  used  for other types of events the value substituted is

       %%   Replaced with a single percent.

       %#   The number of the last client request processed by the server (the
	    serial field from the event).  Valid for all event types.

       %a   The above field from the event, formatted as a hexadecimal number.
	    Valid only for Configure events.

       %b   The number of the button that was pressed or released.  Valid only
	    for ButtonPress and ButtonRelease events.

       %c   The count field from the event.  Valid only for Expose events.

       %d   The	 detail	 field from the event.	The %d is replaced by a string
	    identifying the detail.  For Enter, Leave, FocusIn,	 and  FocusOut
	    events, the string will be one of the following:
	    NotifyAncestor	    NotifyNonlinearVirtual	 NotifyDetail‐
	    None	NotifyPointer	NotifyInferior		NotifyPointer‐
	    Root  NotifyNonlinear	  NotifyVirtual	 For events other than
	    these, the substituted string is undefined.

       %f   The focus field from the event (0 or 1).  Valid only for Enter and
	    Leave events.

       %h   The	 height	 field	from  the  event.  Valid for the Configure and │
	    Expose events.

       %k   The keycode field from the event.  Valid  only  for	 KeyPress  and
	    KeyRelease events.

       %m   The	 mode  field from the event.  The substituted string is one of
	    NotifyNormal,  NotifyGrab,	NotifyUngrab,  or  NotifyWhileGrabbed. │
	    Valid only for Enter, FocusIn, FocusOut, and Leave events.

       %o   The	 override_redirect  field from the event.  Valid only for Map,
	    Reparent, and Configure events.

       %p   The place field from the event, substituted as one of the  strings
	    PlaceOnTop or PlaceOnBottom.  Valid only for Circulate events.

       %s   The	 state	field from the event.  For ButtonPress, ButtonRelease,
	    Enter, KeyPress, KeyRelease, Leave, and Motion events,  a  decimal
	    string  is	substituted.  For Visibility, one of the strings Visi‐
	    bilityUnobscured, VisibilityPartiallyObscured, and	VisibilityFul‐
	    lyObscured is substituted.

       %t   The time field from the event.  Valid only for events that contain
	    a time field.

       %w   The width field from the event.   Valid  only  for	Configure  and │
	    Expose events.

       %x   The x field from the event.	 Valid only for events containing an x

       %y   The y field from the event.	 Valid only for events containing a  y

       %A   Substitutes the ASCII character corresponding to the event, or the
	    empty string if the event doesn't correspond to an ASCII character
	    (e.g. the shift key was pressed).  XLookupString does all the work
	    of translating from the event to an ASCII character.   Valid  only
	    for KeyPress and KeyRelease events.

       %B   The	 border_width  field from the event.  Valid only for Configure
	    events.							       │

       %D								       │
	    This reports the delta value of a  MouseWheel  event.   The	 delta │
	    value  represents  the  rotation  units  the  mouse wheel has been │
	    moved.  On Windows 95 & 98 systems	the  smallest  value  for  the │
	    delta is 120.  Future systems may support higher resolution values │
	    for the delta.  The sign of the value represents the direction the │
	    mouse wheel was scrolled.

       %E   The send_event field from the event.  Valid for all event types.

       %K   The	 keysym	 corresponding	to the event, substituted as a textual
	    string.  Valid only for KeyPress and KeyRelease events.

       %N   The keysym corresponding to the event, substituted	as  a  decimal
	    number.  Valid only for KeyPress and KeyRelease events.

       %R   The	 root window identifier from the event.	 Valid only for events
	    containing a root field.

       %S   The subwindow window identifier from the  event,  formatted	 as  a
	    hexadecimal	 number.  Valid only for events containing a subwindow

       %T   The type field from the event.  Valid for all event types.

       %W   The path name of the window to which the event was	reported  (the
	    window field from the event).  Valid for all event types.

       %X   The x_root field from the event.  If a virtual-root window manager
	    is being used then the substituted value is the  corresponding  x-
	    coordinate	in the virtual root.  Valid only for ButtonPress, But‐
	    tonRelease, KeyPress, KeyRelease, and Motion events.

       %Y   The y_root field from the event.  If a virtual-root window manager
	    is	being  used then the substituted value is the corresponding y-
	    coordinate in the virtual root.  Valid only for ButtonPress,  But‐
	    tonRelease, KeyPress, KeyRelease, and Motion events.

       The replacement string for a %-replacement is formatted as a proper Tcl
       list element.  This means that it will be surrounded with braces if  it
       contains	 spaces, or special characters such as $ and { may be preceded
       by backslashes.	This guarantees that the string will be passed through
       the Tcl parser when the binding script is evaluated.  Most replacements
       are numbers or well-defined strings such as Above;  for these  replace‐
       ments  no  special  formatting is ever necessary.  The most common case
       where reformatting occurs is for the %A substitution.  For example,  if
       script is
	      insert %A
       and  the	 character  typed  is  an open square bracket, then the script
       actually executed will be
	      insert \[
       This will cause the insert to receive the original  replacement	string
       (open  square  bracket)	as its first argument.	If the extra backslash
       hadn't been added, Tcl would not have been able	to  parse  the	script

       It  is  possible for several bindings to match a given X event.	If the
       bindings are associated with different tag's, then each of the bindings
       will  be executed, in order.  By default, a binding for the widget will
       be executed first, followed by a	 class	binding,  a  binding  for  its
       toplevel,  and  an  all	binding.   The bindtags command may be used to
       change this order for a particular window or  to	 associate  additional
       binding tags with the window.

       The  continue and break commands may be used inside a binding script to
       control the processing of matching scripts.  If	continue  is  invoked,
       then the current binding script is terminated but Tk will continue pro‐
       cessing binding scripts associated with other tag's.  If the break com‐
       mand  is	 invoked  within a binding script, then that script terminates
       and no other scripts will be invoked for the event.		       │

       If more than one binding matches a particular event and they  have  the │
       same  tag,  then	 the most specific binding is chosen and its script is │
       evaluated.  The following tests are applied,  in	 order,	 to  determine │
       which of several matching sequences is more specific: (a) an event pat‐ │
       tern that specifies a specific button or key is more specific than  one │
       that  doesn't;  (b)  a  longer  sequence	 (in terms of number of events │
       matched) is more specific than a shorter sequence; (c) if the modifiers │
       specified  in one pattern are a subset of the modifiers in another pat‐ │
       tern, then the pattern with more modifiers is  more  specific.	(d)  a │
       virtual	event whose physical pattern matches the sequence is less spe‐ │
       cific than the same physical pattern that is not associated with a vir‐ │
       tual  event.   (e)  given  a  sequence that matches two or more virtual │
       events, one of the virtual events will be  chosen,  but	the  order  is │
       undefined.							       │

       If  the	matching  sequences  contain  more  than one event, then tests │
       (c)-(e) are applied in order from the most recent event	to  the	 least │
       recent event in the sequences.  If these tests fail to determine a win‐ │
       ner, then the most recently registered sequence is the winner.	       │

       If there are two (or more) virtual events that are  both	 triggered  by │
       the  same  sequence,  and both of those virtual events are bound to the │
       same window tag, then only one of the virtual events will be triggered, │
       and it will be picked at random:					       │
	      event add <<Paste>> <Control-y>				       │
	      event add <<Paste>> <Button-2>				       │
	      event add <<Scroll>> <Button-2>				       │
	      bind Entry <<Paste>> {puts Paste}				       │
	      bind Entry <<Scroll>> {puts Scroll}			       │
       If the user types Control-y, the <<Paste>> binding will be invoked, but │
       if the user presses button 2 then one of either the  <<Paste>>  or  the │
       <<Scroll>> bindings will be invoked, but exactly which one gets invoked │
       is undefined.

       If an X event does not match any of the	existing  bindings,  then  the
       event is ignored.  An unbound event is not considered to be an error.

       When  a	sequence  specified  in	 a bind command contains more than one
       event pattern, then its script is executed whenever the	recent	events
       (leading	 up  to	 and  including	 the  current  event)  match the given
       sequence.  This means, for example, that if button 1 is clicked repeat‐
       edly  the  sequence <Double-ButtonPress-1> will match each button press
       but the first.  If extraneous events that would prevent a  match	 occur
       in  the	middle	of  an	event  sequence then the extraneous events are
       ignored unless they are KeyPress or ButtonPress events.	 For  example,
       <Double-ButtonPress-1>  will  match  a sequence of presses of button 1,
       even though there will be ButtonRelease	events	(and  possibly	Motion
       events)	between the ButtonPress events.	 Furthermore, a KeyPress event
       may be preceded by any number of other  KeyPress	 events	 for  modifier
       keys  without  the  modifier keys preventing a match.  For example, the
       event sequence aB will match a press of the a key, a release of	the  a
       key,  a press of the Shift key, and a press of the b key:  the press of
       Shift is ignored because it is a modifier  key.	 Finally,  if  several
       Motion events occur in a row, only the last one is used for purposes of
       matching binding sequences.

       If an error occurs in executing the script for a binding then the bger‐
       ror mechanism is used to report the error.  The bgerror command will be
       executed at global level (outside the context of any Tcl procedure).


       form, manual

Tk				      8.0			       bind(n)

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