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AVRDUDE(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		    AVRDUDE(1)

NAME
     avrdude — driver program for ``simple'' Atmel AVR MCU programmer

SYNOPSIS
     avrdude -p partno [-b baudrate] [-B bitclock] [-c programmer-id]
	     [-C config-file] [-D] [-e] [-E exitspec[,exitspec]] [-F]
	     [-i delay] [-n -logfile] [-n] [-O] [-P port] [-q] [-s] [-t] [-u]
	     [-U memtype:op:filename:filefmt] [-v] [-x extended_param] [-V]

DESCRIPTION
     Avrdude is a program for downloading code and data to Atmel AVR microcon‐
     trollers.	Avrdude supports Atmel's STK500 programmer, Atmel's AVRISP and
     AVRISP mkII devices, Atmel's STK600, Atmel's JTAG ICE (mkI, mkII and 3,
     the latter two also in ISP mode), programmers complying to AppNote AVR910
     and AVR109 (including the Butterfly), as well as a simple hard-wired pro‐
     grammer connected directly to a ppi(4) or parport(4) parallel port, or to
     a standard serial port.  In the simplest case, the hardware consists just
     of a cable connecting the respective AVR signal lines to the parallel
     port.

     The MCU is programmed in serial programming mode, so, for the ppi(4)
     based programmer, the MCU signals ‘/RESET’, ‘SCK’, ‘MISO’ and ‘MOSI’ need
     to be connected to the parallel port.  Optionally, some otherwise unused
     output pins of the parallel port can be used to supply power for the MCU
     part, so it is also possible to construct a passive stand-alone program‐
     ming device.  Some status LEDs indicating the current operating state of
     the programmer can be connected, and a signal is available to control a
     buffer/driver IC 74LS367 (or 74HCT367).  The latter can be useful to
     decouple the parallel port from the MCU when in-system programming is
     used.

     A number of equally simple bit-bang programming adapters that connect to
     a serial port are supported as well, among them the popular Ponyprog
     serial adapter, and the DASA and DASA3 adapters that used to be supported
     by uisp(1).  Note that these adapters are meant to be attached to a phys‐
     ical serial port.	Connecting to a serial port emulated on top of USB is
     likely to not work at all, or to work abysmally slow.

     If you happen to have a Linux system with at least 4 hardware GPIOs
     available (like almost all embedded Linux boards) you can do without any
     additional hardware - just connect them to the MOSI, MISO, RESET and SCK
     pins on the AVR and use the linuxgpio programmer type. It bitbangs the
     lines using the Linux sysfs GPIO interface. Of course, care should be
     taken about voltage level compatibility. Also, although not strictrly
     required, it is strongly advisable to protect the GPIO pins from overcur‐
     rent situations in some way. The simplest would be to just put some
     resistors in series or better yet use a 3-state buffer driver like the
     74HC244. Have a look at http://kolev.info/avrdude-linuxgpio for a more
     detailed tutorial about using this programmer type.

     Atmel's STK500 programmer is also supported and connects to a serial
     port.  Both, firmware versions 1.x and 2.x can be handled, but require a
     different programmer type specification (by now).	Using firmware version
     2, high-voltage programming is also supported, both parallel and serial
     (programmer types stk500pp and stk500hvsp).

     Wiring boards are supported, utilizing STK500 V2.x protocol, but a simple
     DTR/RTS toggle is used to set the boards into programming mode.  The pro‐
     grammer type is ``wiring''.

     The Arduino (which is very similar to the STK500 1.x) is supported via
     its own programmer type specification ``arduino''.

     The BusPirate is a versatile tool that can also be used as an AVR pro‐
     grammer.  A single BusPirate can be connected to up to 3 independent
     AVRs. See the section on extended parameters below for details.

     Atmel's STK600 programmer is supported in ISP and high-voltage program‐
     ming modes, and connects through the USB.	For ATxmega devices, the
     STK600 is supported in PDI mode.  For ATtiny4/5/9/10 devices, the STK600
     and AVRISP mkII are supported in TPI mode.

     The simple serial programmer described in Atmel's application note
     AVR910, and the bootloader described in Atmel's application note AVR109
     (which is also used by the AVR Butterfly evaluation board), are supported
     on a serial port.

     Atmel's JTAG ICE (mkI, mkII, and 3) is supported as well to up- or down‐
     load memory areas from/to an AVR target (no support for on-chip debug‐
     ging).  For the JTAG ICE mkII, JTAG, debugWire and ISP mode are sup‐
     ported, provided it has a firmware revision of at least 4.14 (decimal).
     JTAGICE3 also supports all of JTAG, debugWIRE, and ISP mode.  See below
     for the limitations of debugWire.	For ATxmega devices, the JTAG ICE mkII
     is supported in PDI mode, provided it has a revision 1 hardware and
     firmware version of at least 5.37 (decimal).  For ATxmega devices, the
     JTAGICE3 is supported in PDI mode.

     Atmel-ICE (ARM/AVR) is supported in all modes (JTAG, PDI for Xmega,
     debugWIRE, ISP).

     Atmel's XplainedPro boards, using the EDBG protocol (CMSIS-DAP compati‐
     ble), are supported using the "jtag3" programmer type.

     The AVR Dragon is supported in all modes (ISP, JTAG, HVSP, PP, debug‐
     Wire).  When used in JTAG and debugWire mode, the AVR Dragon behaves sim‐
     ilar to a JTAG ICE mkII, so all device-specific comments for that device
     will apply as well.  When used in ISP mode, the AVR Dragon behaves simi‐
     lar to an AVRISP mkII (or JTAG ICE mkII in ISP mode), so all device-spe‐
     cific comments will apply there.  In particular, the Dragon starts out
     with a rather fast ISP clock frequency, so the -B bitclock option might
     be required to achieve a stable ISP communication.	 For ATxmega devices,
     the AVR Dragon is supported in PDI mode, provided it has a firmware ver‐
     sion of at least 6.11 (decimal).

     The avrftdi, USBasp ISP and USBtinyISP adapters are also supported, pro‐
     vided avrdude has been compiled with libusb support.  USBasp ISP and
     USBtinyISP both feature simple firmware-only USB implementations, running
     on an ATmega8 (or ATmega88), or ATtiny2313, respectively. If libftdi has
     has been compiled in avrdude, the avrftdi device adds support for many
     programmers using FTDI's 2232C/D/H and 4232H parts running in MPSSE mode,
     which hard-codes (in the chip) SCK to bit 1, MOSI to bit 2, and MISO to
     bit 3. Reset is usually bit 4.

     The Atmel DFU bootloader is supported in both, FLIP protocol version 1
     (AT90USB* and ATmega*U* devices), as well as version 2 (Xmega devices).
     See below for some hints about FLIP version 1 protocol behaviour.

     Input files can be provided, and output files can be written in different
     file formats, such as raw binary files containing the data to download to
     the chip, Intel hex format, or Motorola S-record format.  There are a
     number of tools available to produce those files, like asl(1) as a stand‐
     alone assembler, or avr-objcopy(1) for the final stage of the GNU
     toolchain for the AVR microcontroller.

     Provided libelf(3) was present when compiling avrdude, the input file can
     also be the final ELF file as produced by the linker.  The appropriate
     ELF section(s) will be examined, according to the memory area to write
     to.

     Avrdude can program the EEPROM and flash ROM memory cells of supported
     AVR parts.	 Where supported by the serial instruction set, fuse bits and
     lock bits can be programmed as well.  These are implemented within
     avrdude as separate memory types and can be programmed using data from a
     file (see the -m option) or from terminal mode (see the dump and write
     commands).	 It is also possible to read the chip (provided it has not
     been code-protected previously, of course) and store the data in a file.
     Finally, a ``terminal'' mode is available that allows one to interac‐
     tively communicate with the MCU, and to display or program individual
     memory cells.  On the STK500 and STK600 programmer, several operational
     parameters (target supply voltage, target Aref voltage, master clock) can
     be examined and changed from within terminal mode as well.

   Options
     In order to control all the different operation modi, a number of options
     need to be specified to avrdude.

	   -p partno
		   This is the only option that is mandatory for every invoca‐
		   tion of avrdude.  It specifies the type of the MCU con‐
		   nected to the programmer.  These are read from the config
		   file.  If avrdude does not know about a part that you have,
		   simply add it to the config file (be sure and submit a
		   patch back to the author so that it can be incorporated for
		   the next version).  See the sample config file for the for‐
		   mat.	 For currently supported MCU types use ? as partno,
		   this will print a list of partno ids and official part
		   names on the terminal. (Both can be used with the -p
		   option.)

		   Following parts need special attention:

		   AT90S1200   The ISP programming protocol of the AT90S1200
			       differs in subtle ways from that of other AVRs.
			       Thus, not all programmers support this device.
			       Known to work are all direct bitbang program‐
			       mers, and all programmers talking the STK500v2
			       protocol.

		   AT90S2343   The AT90S2323 and ATtiny22 use the same algo‐
			       rithm.

		   ATmega2560, ATmega2561
			       Flash addressing above 128 KB is not supported
			       by all programming hardware.  Known to work are
			       jtag2, stk500v2, and bit-bang programmers.

		   ATtiny11    The ATtiny11 can only be programmed in high-
			       voltage serial mode.

	   -b baudrate
		   Override the RS-232 connection baud rate specified in the
		   respective programmer's entry of the configuration file.

	   -B bitclock
		   Specify the bit clock period for the JTAG interface or the
		   ISP clock (JTAG ICE only).  The value is a floating-point
		   number in microseconds.  The default value of the JTAG ICE
		   results in about 1 microsecond bit clock period, suitable
		   for target MCUs running at 4 MHz clock and above.  Unlike
		   certain parameters in the STK500, the JTAG ICE resets all
		   its parameters to default values when the programming soft‐
		   ware signs off from the ICE, so for MCUs running at lower
		   clock speeds, this parameter must be specified on the com‐
		   mand-line.  You can use the 'default_bitclock' keyword in
		   your ${HOME}/.avrduderc file to assign a default value to
		   keep from having to specify this option on every invoca‐
		   tion.

	   -c programmer-id
		   Use the programmer specified by the argument.  Programmers
		   and their pin configurations are read from the config file
		   (see the -C option).	 New pin configurations can be easily
		   added or modified through the use of a config file to make
		   avrdude work with different programmers as long as the pro‐
		   grammer supports the Atmel AVR serial program method.  You
		   can use the 'default_programmer' keyword in your
		   ${HOME}/.avrduderc file to assign a default programmer to
		   keep from having to specify this option on every invoca‐
		   tion.  A full list of all supported programmers is output
		   to the terminal by using ? as programmer-id.

	   -C config-file
		   Use the specified config file to load configuration data.
		   This file contains all programmer and part definitions that
		   avrdude knows about.	 If you have a programmer or part that
		   avrdude does not know about, you can add it to the config
		   file (be sure and submit a patch back to the author so that
		   it can be incorporated for the next version).  See the con‐
		   fig file, located at ${PREFIX}/etc/avrdude.conf, which con‐
		   tains a description of the format.

		   If config-file is written as +filename then this file is
		   read after the system wide and user configuration files.
		   This can be used to add entries to the configuration with‐
		   out patching your system wide configuration file. It can be
		   used several times, the files are read in same order as
		   given on the command line.

	   -D	   Disable auto erase for flash.  When the -U option with
		   flash memory is specified, avrdude will perform a chip
		   erase before starting any of the programming operations,
		   since it generally is a mistake to program the flash with‐
		   out performing an erase first.  This option disables that.
		   Auto erase is not used for ATxmega devices as these devices
		   can use page erase before writing each page so no explicit
		   chip erase is required.  Note however that any page not
		   affected by the current operation will retain its previous
		   contents.

	   -e	   Causes a chip erase to be executed.	This will reset the
		   contents of the flash ROM and EEPROM to the value ‘0xff’,
		   and clear all lock bits.  Except for ATxmega devices which
		   can use page erase, it is basically a prerequisite command
		   before the flash ROM can be reprogrammed again.  The only
		   exception would be if the new contents would exclusively
		   cause bits to be programmed from the value ‘1’ to ‘0’.
		   Note that in order to reprogram EERPOM cells, no explicit
		   prior chip erase is required since the MCU provides an
		   auto-erase cycle in that case before programming the cell.

	   -E exitspec[,exitspec]
		   By default, avrdude leaves the parallel port in the same
		   state at exit as it has been found at startup.  This option
		   modifies the state of the ‘/RESET’ and ‘Vcc’ lines the par‐
		   allel port is left at, according to the exitspec arguments
		   provided, as follows:

		   reset    The ‘/RESET’ signal will be left activated at pro‐
			    gram exit, that is it will be held low, in order
			    to keep the MCU in reset state afterwards.	Note
			    in particular that the programming algorithm for
			    the AT90S1200 device mandates that the ‘/RESET’
			    signal is active before powering up the MCU, so in
			    case an external power supply is used for this MCU
			    type, a previous invocation of avrdude with this
			    option specified is one of the possible ways to
			    guarantee this condition.

		   noreset  The ‘/RESET’ line will be deactivated at program
			    exit, thus allowing the MCU target program to run
			    while the programming hardware remains connected.

		   vcc	    This option will leave those parallel port pins
			    active (i. e. high) that can be used to supply
			    ‘Vcc’ power to the MCU.

		   novcc    This option will pull the ‘Vcc’ pins of the paral‐
			    lel port down at program exit.

		   d_high   This option will leave the 8 data pins on the par‐
			    allel port active.	(i. e. high)

		   d_low    This option will leave the 8 data pins on the par‐
			    allel port inactive.  (i. e. low)

		   Multiple exitspec arguments can be separated with commas.

	   -F	   Normally, avrdude tries to verify that the device signature
		   read from the part is reasonable before continuing.	Since
		   it can happen from time to time that a device has a broken
		   (erased or overwritten) device signature but is otherwise
		   operating normally, this options is provided to override
		   the check.  Also, for programmers like the Atmel STK500 and
		   STK600 which can adjust parameters local to the programming
		   tool (independent of an actual connection to a target con‐
		   troller), this option can be used together with -t to con‐
		   tinue in terminal mode.

	   -i delay
		   For bitbang-type programmers, delay for approximately delay
		   microseconds between each bit state change.	If the host
		   system is very fast, or the target runs off a slow clock
		   (like a 32 kHz crystal, or the 128 kHz internal RC oscilla‐
		   tor), this can become necessary to satisfy the requirement
		   that the ISP clock frequency must not be higher than 1/4 of
		   the CPU clock frequency.  This is implemented as a spin-
		   loop delay to allow even for very short delays.  On Unix-
		   style operating systems, the spin loop is initially cali‐
		   brated against a system timer, so the number of microsec‐
		   onds might be rather realistic, assuming a constant system
		   load while avrdude is running.  On Win32 operating systems,
		   a preconfigured number of cycles per microsecond is assumed
		   that might be off a bit for very fast or very slow
		   machines.

	   -l logfile
		   Use logfile rather than stderr for diagnostics output.
		   Note that initial diagnostic messages (during option pars‐
		   ing) are still written to stderr anyway.

	   -n	   No-write - disables actually writing data to the MCU (use‐
		   ful for debugging avrdude ).

	   -O	   Perform a RC oscillator run-time calibration according to
		   Atmel application note AVR053.  This is only supported on
		   the STK500v2, AVRISP mkII, and JTAG ICE mkII hardware.
		   Note that the result will be stored in the EEPROM cell at
		   address 0.

	   -P port
		   Use port to identify the device to which the programmer is
		   attached.  By default the /dev/ppi0 port is used, but if
		   the programmer type normally connects to the serial port,
		   the /dev/cuaa0 port is the default.	If you need to use a
		   different parallel or serial port, use this option to spec‐
		   ify the alternate port name.

		   On Win32 operating systems, the parallel ports are referred
		   to as lpt1 through lpt3, referring to the addresses 0x378,
		   0x278, and 0x3BC, respectively.  If the parallel port can
		   be accessed through a different address, this address can
		   be specified directly, using the common C language notation
		   (i. e., hexadecimal values are prefixed by ‘0x’ ).

		   For the JTAG ICE mkII and JTAGICE3, if avrdude has been
		   configured with libusb support, port can alternatively be
		   specified as usb[:serialno].	 This will cause avrdude to
		   search the programmer on USB.  If serialno is also speci‐
		   fied, it will be matched against the serial number read
		   from any JTAG ICE mkII found on USB.	 The match is done
		   after stripping any existing colons from the given serial
		   number, and right-to-left, so only the least significant
		   bytes from the serial number need to be given.

		   As the AVRISP mkII device can only be talked to over USB,
		   the very same method of specifying the port is required
		   there.

		   For the USB programmer "AVR-Doper" running in HID mode, the
		   port must be specified as avrdoper. Libusb support is
		   required on Unix but not on Windows. For more information
		   about AVR-Doper see http://www.obdev.at/avrusb/avr‐
		   doper.html.

		   For the USBtinyISP, which is a simplicistic device not
		   implementing serial numbers, multiple devices can be dis‐
		   tinguished by their location in the USB hierarchy.  See the
		   the respective Troubleshooting entry in the detailed docu‐
		   mentation for examples.

		   For programmers that attach to a serial port using some
		   kind of higher level protocol (as opposed to bit-bang style
		   programmers), port can be specified as net:host:port.  In
		   this case, instead of trying to open a local device, a TCP
		   network connection to (TCP) port on host is established.
		   The remote endpoint is assumed to be a terminal or console
		   server that connects the network stream to a local serial
		   port where the actual programmer has been attached to.  The
		   port is assumed to be properly configured, for example
		   using a transparent 8-bit data connection without parity at
		   115200 Baud for a STK500.  This feature is currently not
		   implemented for Win32 systems.

	   -q	   Disable (or quell) output of the progress bar while reading
		   or writing to the device.  Specify it a second time for
		   even quieter operation.

	   -s	   Disable safemode prompting.	When safemode discovers that
		   one or more fuse bits have unintentionally changed, it will
		   prompt for confirmation regarding whether or not it should
		   attempt to recover the fuse bit(s).	Specifying this flag
		   disables the prompt and assumes that the fuse bit(s) should
		   be recovered without asking for confirmation first.

	   -t	   Tells avrdude to enter the interactive ``terminal'' mode
		   instead of up- or downloading files.	 See below for a
		   detailed description of the terminal mode.

	   -u	   Disable the safemode fuse bit checks.  Safemode is enabled
		   by default and is intended to prevent unintentional fuse
		   bit changes.	 When enabled, safemode will issue a warning
		   if the any fuse bits are found to be different at program
		   exit than they were when avrdude was invoked.  Safemode
		   won't alter fuse bits itself, but rather will prompt for
		   instructions, unless the terminal is non-interactive, in
		   which case safemode is disabled.  See the -s option to dis‐
		   able safemode prompting.

		   If one of the configuration files has a line
			 default_safemode = no;
		   safemode is disabled by default.  The -u option's effect is
		   negated in that case, i. e. it enables safemode.

		   Safemode is always disabled for AVR32, Xmega and TPI
		   devices.

	   -U memtype:op:filename[:format]
		   Perform a memory operation as indicated.  The memtype field
		   specifies the memory type to operate on.  The available
		   memory types are device-dependent, the actual configuration
		   can be viewed with the part command in terminal mode.  Typ‐
		   ically, a device's memory configuration at least contains
		   the memory types flash and eeprom.  All memory types cur‐
		   rently known are:
		   calibration	One or more bytes of RC oscillator calibration
				data.
		   eeprom	The EEPROM of the device.
		   efuse	The extended fuse byte.
		   flash	The flash ROM of the device.
		   fuse		The fuse byte in devices that have only a sin‐
				gle fuse byte.
		   hfuse	The high fuse byte.
		   lfuse	The low fuse byte.
		   lock		The lock byte.
		   signature	The three device signature bytes (device ID).
		   fuseN	The fuse bytes of ATxmega devices, N is an
				integer number for each fuse supported by the
				device.
		   application	The application flash area of ATxmega devices.
		   apptable	The application table flash area of ATxmega
				devices.
		   boot		The boot flash area of ATxmega devices.
		   prodsig	The production signature (calibration) area of
				ATxmega devices.
		   usersig	The user signature area of ATxmega devices.

		   The op field specifies what operation to perform:

		   r	    read device memory and write to the specified file

		   w	    read data from the specified file and write to the
			    device memory

		   v	    read data from both the device and the specified
			    file and perform a verify

		   The filename field indicates the name of the file to read
		   or write.  The format field is optional and contains the
		   format of the file to read or write.	 Format can be one of:

		   i	Intel Hex

		   s	Motorola S-record

		   r	raw binary; little-endian byte order, in the case of
			the flash ROM data

		   e	ELF (Executable and Linkable Format)

		   m	immediate; actual byte values specified on the command
			line, separated by commas or spaces.  This is good for
			programming fuse bytes without having to create a sin‐
			gle-byte file or enter terminal mode.

		   a	auto detect; valid for input only, and only if the
			input is not provided at stdin.

		   d	decimal; this and the following formats are only valid
			on output.  They generate one line of output for the
			respective memory section, forming a comma-separated
			list of the values.  This can be particularly useful
			for subsequent processing, like for fuse bit settings.

		   h	hexadecimal; each value will get the string 0x
			prepended.

		   o	octal; each value will get a 0 prepended unless it is
			less than 8 in which case it gets no prefix.

		   b	binary; each value will get the string 0b prepended.

		   The default is to use auto detection for input files, and
		   raw binary format for output files.	Note that if filename
		   contains a colon, the format field is no longer optional
		   since the filename part following the colon would otherwise
		   be misinterpreted as format.

		   As an abbreviation, the form -U filename is equivalent to
		   specifying -U flash:w:filename:a.  This will only work if
		   filename does not have a colon in it.

	   -v	   Enable verbose output.  More -v options increase verbosity
		   level.

	   -V	   Disable automatic verify check when uploading data.

	   -x extended_param
		   Pass extended_param to the chosen programmer implementation
		   as an extended parameter.  The interpretation of the
		   extended parameter depends on the programmer itself.	 See
		   below for a list of programmers accepting extended parame‐
		   ters.

   Terminal mode
     In this mode, avrdude only initializes communication with the MCU, and
     then awaits user commands on standard input.  Commands and parameters may
     be abbreviated to the shortest unambiguous form.  Terminal mode provides
     a command history using readline(3), so previously entered command lines
     can be recalled and edited.  The following commands are currently imple‐
     mented:

	   dump memtype addr nbytes
		   Read nbytes bytes from the specified memory area, and dis‐
		   play them in the usual hexadecimal and ASCII form.

	   dump	   Continue dumping the memory contents for another nbytes
		   where the previous dump command left off.

	   write memtype addr byte1 ... byteN
		   Manually program the respective memory cells, starting at
		   address addr, using the values byte1 through byteN.	This
		   feature is not implemented for bank-addressed memories such
		   as the flash memory of ATMega devices.

	   erase   Perform a chip erase.

	   send b1 b2 b3 b4
		   Send raw instruction codes to the AVR device.  If you need
		   access to a feature of an AVR part that is not directly
		   supported by avrdude, this command allows you to use it,
		   even though avrdude does not implement the command. When
		   using direct SPI mode, up to 3 bytes can be omitted.

	   sig	   Display the device signature bytes.

	   spi	   Enter direct SPI mode.  The pgmled pin acts as slave
		   select.  Only supported on parallel bitbang programmers.

	   part	   Display the current part settings and parameters.  Includes
		   chip specific information including all memory types sup‐
		   ported by the device, read/write timing, etc.

	   pgm	   Return to programming mode (from direct SPI mode).

	   vtarg voltage
		   Set the target's supply voltage to voltage Volts.  Only
		   supported on the STK500 and STK600 programmer.

	   varef [channel] voltage
		   Set the adjustable voltage source to voltage Volts.	This
		   voltage is normally used to drive the target's Aref input
		   on the STK500.  On the Atmel STK600, two reference voltages
		   are available, which can be selected by the optional
		   channel argument (either 0 or 1).  Only supported on the
		   STK500 and STK600 programmer.

	   fosc freq[M|k]
		   Set the master oscillator to freq Hz.  An optional trailing
		   letter M multiplies by 1E6, a trailing letter k by 1E3.
		   Only supported on the STK500 and STK600 programmer.

	   fosc off
		   Turn the master oscillator off.  Only supported on the
		   STK500 and STK600 programmer.

	   sck period
		   STK500 and STK600 programmer only: Set the SCK clock period
		   to period microseconds.

		   JTAG ICE only: Set the JTAG ICE bit clock period to period
		   microseconds.  Note that unlike STK500 settings, this set‐
		   ting will be reverted to its default value (approximately 1
		   microsecond) when the programming software signs off from
		   the JTAG ICE.  This parameter can also be used on the JTAG
		   ICE mkII, JTAGICE3, and Atmel-ICE to specify the ISP clock
		   period when operating the ICE in ISP mode.

	   parms   STK500 and STK600 programmer only: Display the current
		   voltage and master oscillator parameters.

		   JTAG ICE only: Display the current target supply voltage
		   and JTAG bit clock rate/period.

	   verbose [level]
		   Change (when level is provided), or display the verbosity
		   level.  The initial verbosity level is controlled by the
		   number of -v options given on the commandline.

	   ?

	   help	   Give a short on-line summary of the available commands.

	   quit	   Leave terminal mode and thus avrdude.

   Default Parallel port pin connections
     (these can be changed, see the -c option)
     Pin number	  Function
     2-5	  Vcc (optional power supply to MCU)
     7		  /RESET (to MCU)
     8		  SCK (to MCU)
     9		  MOSI (to MCU)
     10		  MISO (from MCU)
     18-25	  GND

   debugWire limitations
     The debugWire protocol is Atmel's proprietary one-wire (plus ground) pro‐
     tocol to allow an in-circuit emulation of the smaller AVR devices, using
     the ‘/RESET’ line.	 DebugWire mode is initiated by activating the ‘DWEN’
     fuse, and then power-cycling the target.  While this mode is mainly
     intended for debugging/emulation, it also offers limited programming
     capabilities.  Effectively, the only memory areas that can be read or
     programmed in this mode are flash ROM and EEPROM.	It is also possible to
     read out the signature.  All other memory areas cannot be accessed.
     There is no chip erase functionality in debugWire mode; instead, while
     reprogramming the flash ROM, each flash ROM page is erased right before
     updating it.  This is done transparently by the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR
     Dragon).  The only way back from debugWire mode is to initiate a special
     sequence of commands to the JTAG ICE mkII (or AVR Dragon), so the debug‐
     Wire mode will be temporarily disabled, and the target can be accessed
     using normal ISP programming.  This sequence is automatically initiated
     by using the JTAG ICE mkII or AVR Dragon in ISP mode, when they detect
     that ISP mode cannot be entered.

   FLIP version 1 idiosyncrasies
     Bootloaders using the FLIP protocol version 1 experience some very spe‐
     cific behaviour.

     These bootloaders have no option to access memory areas other than Flash
     and EEPROM.

     When the bootloader is started, it enters a security mode where the only
     acceptable access is to query the device configuration parameters (which
     are used for the signature on AVR devices).  The only way to leave this
     mode is a chip erase.  As a chip erase is normally implied by the -U
     option when reprogramming the flash, this peculiarity might not be very
     obvious immediately.

     Sometimes, a bootloader with security mode already disabled seems to no
     longer respond with sensible configuration data, but only 0xFF for all
     queries.  As these queries are used to obtain the equivalent of a signa‐
     ture, avrdude can only continue in that situation by forcing the signa‐
     ture check to be overridden with the -F option.

     A chip erase might leave the EEPROM unerased, at least on some versions
     of the bootloader.

   Programmers accepting extended parameters
	   JTAG ICE mkII

	   JTAGICE3

	   Atmel-ICE

	   AVR Dragon
		   When using the JTAG ICE mkII, JTAGICE3, Atmel-ICE or AVR
		   Dragon in JTAG mode, the following extended parameter is
		   accepted:

			 jtagchain=UB,UA,BB,BA
				 Setup the JTAG scan chain for UB units
				 before, UA units after, BB bits before, and
				 BA bits after the target AVR, respectively.
				 Each AVR unit within the chain shifts by 4
				 bits.	Other JTAG units might require a dif‐
				 ferent bit shift count.

	   AVR910

			 devcode=VALUE
				 Override the device code selection by using
				 VALUE as the device code.  The programmer is
				 not queried for the list of supported device
				 codes, and the specified VALUE is not veri‐
				 fied but used directly within the ‘T’ command
				 sent to the programmer.  VALUE can be speci‐
				 fied using the conventional number notation
				 of the C programming language.

			 no_blockmode
				 Disables the default checking for block
				 transfer capability.  Use no_blockmode only
				 if your AVR910 programmer creates errors dur‐
				 ing initial sequence.

	   buspirate

			 reset={cs,aux,aux2}
				 The default setup assumes the BusPirate's CS
				 output pin connected to the RESET pin on AVR
				 side. It is however possible to have multiple
				 AVRs connected to the same BP with MISO, MOSI
				 and SCK lines common for all of them.	In
				 such a case one AVR should have its RESET
				 connected to BusPirate's CS pin, second AVR's
				 RESET connected to BusPirate's AUX pin and if
				 your BusPirate has an AUX2 pin (only avail‐
				 able on BusPirate version v1a with firmware
				 3.0 or newer) use that to activate RESET on
				 the third AVR.

				 It may be a good idea to decouple the BusPi‐
				 rate and the AVR's SPI buses from each other
				 using a 3-state bus buffer. For example
				 74HC125 or 74HC244 are some good candidates
				 with the latches driven by the appropriate
				 reset pin (cs, aux or aux2). Otherwise the
				 SPI traffic in one active circuit may inter‐
				 fere with programming the AVR in the other
				 design.

			 spifreq=<0..7>
				 The SPI speed for the Bus Pirate's binary SPI
				 mode:

				 0 ..  30 kHz	(default)
				 1 .. 125 kHz
				 2 .. 250 kHz
				 3 ..	1 MHz
				 4 ..	2 MHz
				 5 ..	2.6 MHz
				 6 ..	4 MHz
				 7 ..	8 MHz

			 rawfreq=<0..3>
				 Sets the SPI speed and uses the Bus Pirate's
				 binary "raw-wire" mode:

				 0 ..	5 kHz
				 1 ..  50 kHz
				 2 .. 100 kHz	(Firmware v4.2+ only)
				 3 .. 400 kHz	(v4.2+)

				 The only advantage of the "raw-wire" mode is
				 the different SPI frequencies available.
				 Paged writing is not implemented in this
				 mode.

			 ascii	 Attempt to use ASCII mode even when the
				 firmware supports BinMode (binary mode).
				 BinMode is supported in firmware 2.7 and
				 newer, older FW's either don't have BinMode
				 or their BinMode is buggy. ASCII mode is
				 slower and makes the above reset=, spifreq=
				 and rawfreq= parameters unavailable. Be aware
				 that ASCII mode is not guaranteed to work
				 with newer firmware versions, and is retained
				 only to maintain compatability with older
				 firmware versions.

			 nopagedwrite
				 Firmware versions 5.10 and newer support a
				 binary mode SPI command that enables whole
				 pages to be written to AVR flash memory at
				 once, resulting in a significant write speed
				 increase. If use of this mode is not desir‐
				 able for some reason, this option disables
				 it.

			 nopagedread
				 Newer firmware versions support in binary
				 mode SPI command some AVR Extended Commands.
				 Using the "Bulk Memory Read from Flash"
				 results in a significant read speed increase.
				 If use of this mode is not desirable for some
				 reason, this option disables it.

			 cpufreq=<125..4000>
				 This sets the AUX pin to output a frequency
				 of n kHz. Connecting the AUX pin to the XTAL1
				 pin of your MCU, you can provide it a clock,
				 for example when it needs an external clock
				 because of wrong fuses settings.  This set‐
				 ting is only available in ASCII mode. (The
				 lower limit was chosen so the CPU frequency
				 is at least for four times the SPI frequency
				 which is in ASCII mode 30kHz.)

			 serial_recv_timeout=<1...>
				 This sets the serial receive timeout to the
				 given value.  The timeout happens every time
				 avrdude waits for the BusPirate prompt.
				 Especially in ascii mode this happens very
				 often, so setting a smaller value can speed
				 up programming a lot.	The default value is
				 100ms. Using 10ms might work in most cases.

	   Wiring  When using the Wiring programmer type, the following
		   optional extended parameter is accepted:

			 snooze=<0..32767>
				 After performing the port open phase, AVRDUDE
				 will wait/snooze for snooze milliseconds
				 before continuing to the protocol sync phase.
				 No toggling of DTR/RTS is performed if snooze
				 is greater than 0.

	   PICkit2
		   Connection to the PICkit2 programmer:

		   (AVR)    (PICkit2)
		   RST	-   VPP/MCLR (1)
		   VDD	-   VDD Target (2) -- possibly optional if AVR self powered
		   GND	-   GND (3)
		   MISO -   PGD (4)
		   SCLK -   PDC (5)
		   MOSI -   AUX (6)

		   Extended commandline parameters:

			 clockrate=<rate>
				 Sets the SPI clocking rate in Hz (default is
				 100kHz). Alternately the -B or -i options can
				 be used to set the period.

			 timeout=<usb-transaction-timeout>
				 Sets the timeout for USB reads and writes in
				 milliseconds (default is 1500 ms).

FILES
	   /dev/ppi0	 default device to be used for communication with the
			 programming hardware

	   ${PREFIX}/etc/avrdude.conf
			 programmer and parts configuration file

	   ${HOME}/.avrduderc
			 programmer and parts configuration file (per-user
			 overrides)

	   ~/.inputrc	 Initialization file for the readline(3) library

	   ${PREFIX}/share/doc/avrdude/avrdude.pdf
			 Schematic of programming hardware

DIAGNOSTICS
     avrdude: jtagmkII_setparm(): bad response to set parameter command: RSP_FAILED
     avrdude: jtagmkII_getsync(): ISP activation failed, trying debugWire
     avrdude: Target prepared for ISP, signed off.
     avrdude: Please restart avrdude without power-cycling the target.

     If the target AVR has been set up for debugWire mode (i. e. the DWEN fuse
     is programmed), normal ISP connection attempts will fail as the /RESET
     pin is not available.  When using the JTAG ICE mkII in ISP mode, the mes‐
     sage shown indicates that avrdude has guessed this condition, and tried
     to initiate a debugWire reset to the target.  When successful, this will
     leave the target AVR in a state where it can respond to normal ISP commu‐
     nication again (until the next power cycle).  Typically, the same command
     is going to be retried again immediately afterwards, and will then suc‐
     ceed connecting to the target using normal ISP communication.

SEE ALSO
     avr-objcopy(1), ppi(4), libelf(3,) readline(3)

     The AVR microcontroller product description can be found at

	   http://www.atmel.com/products/AVR/

AUTHORS
     Avrdude was written by Brian S. Dean <bsd@bsdhome.com>.

     This man page by Joerg Wunsch.

BUGS
     Please report bugs via
	   http://savannah.nongnu.org/bugs/?group=avrdude.

     The JTAG ICE programmers currently cannot write to the flash ROM one byte
     at a time.	 For that reason, updating the flash ROM from terminal mode
     does not work.

     Page-mode programming the EEPROM through JTAG (i.e. through an -U option)
     requires a prior chip erase.  This is an inherent feature of the way JTAG
     EEPROM programming works.	This also applies to the STK500 and STK600 in
     parallel programming mode.

     The USBasp and USBtinyISP drivers do not offer any option to distinguish
     multiple devices connected simultaneously, so effectively only a single
     device is supported.

     The avrftdi driver allows to select specific devices using any combina‐
     tion of vid,pid serial number (usbsn) vendor description (usbvendoror
     part description (usbproduct) as seen with lsusb or whatever tool used to
     view USB device information. Multiple devices can be on the bus at the
     same time. For the H parts, which have multiple MPSSE interfaces, the
     interface can also be selected.  It defaults to interface 'A'.

BSD				April 22, 2019				   BSD
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