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ACCESS(2)							     ACCESS(2)

       access, faccessat - determine accessibility of a file

       #include <unistd.h>
       #include <sys/fcntl.h>

       int access(const char *path, int amode);

       int faccessat(int fd, const char *path, int amode, int flag);

       The  access() function checks the file named by the pathname pointed to
       by the path argument for accessibility according	 to  the  bit  pattern
       contained  in  amode,  using the real user ID in place of the effective
       user ID and the real group ID in place of the effective group ID.  This
       allows  a  setuid process to verify that the user running it would have
       had permission to access this file.

       The value of amode is either the bitwise inclusive  OR  of  the	access
       permissions  to	be  checked  (R_OK, W_OK, X_OK) or the existence test,

       These constants are defined in <unistd.h> as follows:

	       Test for read permission.

	       Test for write permission.

	       Test for execute or search permission.

	       Check existence of file

       See Intro(2) for additional information about "File Access Permission".

       If any access permissions are to be checked, each will be checked indi‐
       vidually,  as  described	 in  Intro(2).	If the process has appropriate
       privileges, an implementation may indicate success  for	X_OK  even  if
       none of the execute file permission bits are set.

       The faccessat() function is equivalent to the access() function, except
       in the case where path specifies a relative path. In this case the file
       whose  accessibility  is	 to  be	 determined is located relative to the
       directory associated with the file descriptor fd instead of the current
       working directory.

       If  faccessat()	is  passed  in	the  fd	 parameter  the	 special value
       AT_FDCWD, defined in <fcntl.h>, the current working directory  is  used
       and the behavior is identical to a call to access().

       Values for flag are constructed by a bitwise-inclusive OR of flags from
       the following list, defined in <fcntl.h>:

		     The checks for  accessibility  are	 performed  using  the
		     effective user and group IDs instead of the real user and
		     group ID as required in a call to access().

       If the requested access is permitted, access()  and  faccessat()succeed
       and  return  0.	Otherwise, −1 is returned and errno is set to indicate
       the error.

       The access() and faccessat() functions will fail if:

		       Permission bits of the file  mode  do  not  permit  the
		       requested  access,  or search permission is denied on a
		       component of the path prefix.

		       The path argument points to an illegal address.

		       A signal was caught during the access() function.

		       Too many symbolic links were encountered	 in  resolving
		       path, or loop exists in symbolic links encountered dur‐
		       ing resolution of the path argument.

		       The length of the path argument exceeds {PATH_MAX},  or
		       a  pathname  component  is longer than {NAME_MAX} while
		       _POSIX_NO_TRUNC is in effect.

		       A component of path does not name an existing  file  or
		       path is an empty string.

		       The  path  argument  points to a remote machine and the
		       link to that machine is no longer active.

		       A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

		       The path argument points to a character or block device
		       special	file  and  the	corresponding  device has been
		       retired by the fault management framework.

		       Write access is requested for a	file  on  a  read-only
		       file system.

       The faccessat() function will fail if:

		The path argument does not specify an absolute path and the fd
		argument is neither AT_FDCWD nor a valid file descriptor  open
		for reading or searching.

       The access() and faccessat() functions may fail if:

		       The value of the amode argument is invalid.

		       Pathname	 resolution  of	 a  symbolic  link produced an
		       intermediate result whose length exceeds {PATH_MAX}.

		       Write access is requested for a pure procedure  (shared
		       text) file that is being executed.

       The faccessat() function may fail if:

		  The value of the flag argument is not valid.

		  The  path argument is not an absolute path and fd is neither
		  AT_FDCWD nor a file descriptor associated with a directory.

       Additional values of amode other than the set defined in	 the  descrip‐
       tion  might be valid, for example, if a system has extended access con‐

       The purpose of the faccessat() function is to enable  the  checking  of
       the  accessibility of files in directories other than the current work‐
       ing directory without exposure to race conditions. Any part of the path
       of a file could be changed in parallel to a call to access(), resulting
       in unspecified behavior. By opening a file descriptor  for  the	target
       directory and using the faccessat() function, it can be guaranteed that
       the file tested for accessibility is located relative  to  the  desired

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │Interface Stability │ Committed		│
       │MT-Level	    │ Async-Signal-Safe │
       │Standard	    │ See below.	│

       For access(), see standards(5).

       Intro(2), chmod(2), stat(2), attributes(5), standards(5)

				 Jun 16, 2009			     ACCESS(2)

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