VALUES man page on Scientific

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VALUES(7)			 SQL Commands			     VALUES(7)

       VALUES - compute a set of rows

       VALUES ( expression [, ...] ) [, ...]
	   [ ORDER BY sort_expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
	   [ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
	   [ OFFSET start [ ROW | ROWS ] ]
	   [ FETCH { FIRST | NEXT } [ count ] { ROW | ROWS } ONLY ]

       VALUES  computes	 a  row	 value or set of row values specified by value
       expressions. It is most commonly used to generate a ``constant  table''
       within a larger command, but it can be used on its own.

       When  more  than	 one row is specified, all the rows must have the same
       number of elements. The data types of the resulting table's columns are
       determined  by  combining the explicit or inferred types of the expres‐
       sions appearing in that column, using the same rules as for UNION  (see
       in the documentation).

       Within  larger  commands, VALUES is syntactically allowed anywhere that
       SELECT is. Because it is treated like a SELECT by the  grammar,	it  is
       possible	 to use the ORDER BY, LIMIT (or equivalently FETCH FIRST), and
       OFFSET clauses with a VALUES command.

	      A constant or expression to compute and insert at the  indicated
	      place  in	 the  resulting	 table (set of rows). In a VALUES list
	      appearing at the top level of an INSERT, an  expression  can  be
	      replaced	by  DEFAULT  to indicate that the destination column's
	      default value should be inserted. DEFAULT cannot	be  used  when
	      VALUES appears in other contexts.

	      An  expression  or  integer  constant indicating how to sort the
	      result rows. This expression can refer to	 the  columns  of  the
	      VALUES  result  as  column1,  column2, etc. For more details see
	      ORDER BY Clause [select(7)].

	      A sorting operator. For details see ORDER BY Clause [select(7)].

       count  The maximum number of rows to  return.  For  details  see	 LIMIT
	      Clause [select(7)].

       start  The  number of rows to skip before starting to return rows.  For
	      details see LIMIT Clause [select(7)].

       VALUES lists with very large numbers of rows should be avoided, as  you
       might  encounter	 out-of-memory	failures  or poor performance.	VALUES
       appearing within INSERT is a special case (because the  desired	column
       types  are  known  from	the  INSERT's  target  table,  and need not be
       inferred by scanning the VALUES list), so it can	 handle	 larger	 lists
       than are practical in other contexts.

       A bare VALUES command:

       VALUES (1, 'one'), (2, 'two'), (3, 'three');

       This  will  return  a  table of two columns and three rows. It's effec‐
       tively equivalent to:

       SELECT 1 AS column1, 'one' AS column2
       UNION ALL
       SELECT 2, 'two'
       UNION ALL
       SELECT 3, 'three';

       More usually, VALUES is used within a larger  SQL  command.   The  most
       common use is in INSERT:

       INSERT INTO films (code, title, did, date_prod, kind)
	   VALUES ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, '1961-06-16', 'Drama');

       In  the	context	 of INSERT, entries of a VALUES list can be DEFAULT to
       indicate that the column default should be used here instead of	speci‐
       fying a value:

	   ('UA502', 'Bananas', 105, DEFAULT, 'Comedy', '82 minutes'),
	   ('T_601', 'Yojimbo', 106, DEFAULT, 'Drama', DEFAULT);

       VALUES  can also be used where a sub-SELECT might be written, for exam‐
       ple in a FROM clause:

       SELECT f.*
	 FROM films f, (VALUES('MGM', 'Horror'), ('UA', 'Sci-Fi')) AS t (studio, kind)
	 WHERE = AND f.kind = t.kind;

       UPDATE employees SET salary = salary * v.increase
	 FROM (VALUES(1, 200000, 1.2), (2, 400000, 1.4)) AS v (depno, target, increase)
	 WHERE employees.depno = v.depno AND employees.sales >=;

       Note that an AS clause is required  when	 VALUES	 is  used  in  a  FROM
       clause,	just  as  is  true  for SELECT. It is not required that the AS
       clause specify names for all the columns, but it's good practice to  do
       so.   (The default column names for VALUES are column1, column2, etc in
       PostgreSQL, but these names might be different in other	database  sys‐

       When VALUES is used in INSERT, the values are all automatically coerced
       to the data type of the corresponding  destination  column.  When  it's
       used  in	 other	contexts, it might be necessary to specify the correct
       data type. If the entries are all quoted	 literal  constants,  coercing
       the first is sufficient to determine the assumed type for all:

       SELECT * FROM machines
       WHERE ip_address IN (VALUES(''::inet), (''), (''));

	      Tip:  For	 simple	 IN tests, it's better to rely on the list-of-
	      scalars form of IN than to write a VALUES query as shown	above.
	      The  list	 of  scalars method requires less writing and is often
	      more efficient.

       VALUES conforms to the SQL standard.  LIMIT and OFFSET  are  PostgreSQL
       extensions; see also under SELECT [select(7)].

       INSERT [insert(7)], SELECT [select(7)]

SQL - Language Statements	  2013-10-08			     VALUES(7)

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