pigz, unpigz - compress or expand files
pigz [ -cdfhikKlLnNqrRtTz0..9,11 ] [ -b blocksize ] [ -p threads ] [ -S suffix
] [ name ... ]
unpigz [ -cfhikKlLnNqrRtTz ] [ -b blocksize ] [ -p threads ] [ -S suf‐
fix ] [ name ... ]
Pigz compresses using threads to make use of multiple processors and
cores. The input is broken up into 128 KB chunks with each compressed
in parallel. The individual check value for each chunk is also calcu‐
lated in parallel. The compressed data is written in order to the out‐
put, and a combined check value is calculated from the individual check
The compressed data format generated is in the gzip, zlib, or single-
entry zip format using the deflate compression method. The compression
produces partial raw deflate streams which are concatenated by a single
write thread and wrapped with the appropriate header and trailer, where
the trailer contains the combined check value.
Each partial raw deflate stream is terminated by an empty stored block
(using the Z_SYNC_FLUSH option of zlib), in order to end that partial
bit stream at a byte boundary. That allows the partial streams to be
concatenated simply as sequences of bytes. This adds a very small four
to five byte overhead to the output for each input chunk.
The default input block size is 128K, but can be changed with the -b
option. The number of compress threads is set by default to the number
of online processors, which can be changed using the -p option. Speci‐
fying -p 1 avoids the use of threads entirely.
The input blocks, while compressed independently, have the last 32K of
the previous block loaded as a preset dictionary to preserve the com‐
pression effectiveness of deflating in a single thread. This can be
turned off using the -i or --independent option, so that the blocks can
be decompressed independently for partial error recovery or for random
Decompression can't be parallelized, at least not without specially
prepared deflate streams for that purpose. As a result, pigz uses a
single thread (the main thread) for decompression, but will create
three other threads for reading, writing, and check calculation, which
can speed up decompression under some circumstances. Parallel decom‐
pression can be turned off by specifying one process ( -dp 1 or -tp 1
Compressed files can be restored to their original form using pigz -d
-# --fast --best
Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #,
where -1 or --fast indicates the fastest compression method
(less compression) and -9 or --best indicates the slowest com‐
pression method (best compression). -0 is no compression. -11
gives a few percent better compression at a severe cost in exe‐
cution time. The default is -6.
-b --blocksize mmm
Set compression block size to mmmK (default 128KiB).
-c --stdout --to-stdout
Write all processed output to stdout (won't delete).
-d --decompress --uncompress
Decompress the compressed input.
Force overwrite, compress .gz, links, and to terminal.
Display a help screen and quit.
Compress blocks independently for damage recovery.
Do not delete original file after processing.
Compress to PKWare zip (.zip) single entry format.
List the contents of the compressed input.
Display the pigz license and quit.
Do not store or restore file name in/from header.
Store/restore file name and mod time in/from header.
-p --processes n
Allow up to n processes (default is the number of online proces‐
-q --quiet --silent
Print no messages, even on error.
Process the contents of all subdirectories.
Input-determined block locations for rsync.
-S --suffix .sss
Use suffix .sss instead of .gz (for compression).
Test the integrity of the compressed input.
Do not store or restore mod time in/from header.
Provide more verbose output.
Show the version of pigz.
Compress to zlib (.zz) instead of gzip format.
-- All arguments after "--" are treated as file names (for names
that start with "-")
These options are unique to the -11 compression level:
Do iterations first, before block split (default is last).
-I, --iterations n
Number of iterations for optimization (default 15).
-M, --maxsplits n
Maximum number of split blocks (default 15).
Do not split into smaller blocks (default is block splitting).
This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied war‐
ranty. In no event will the author be held liable for any damages
arising from the use of this software.
Copyright (C) 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 Mark Adler