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get(1)									get(1)

       get  -  Creates	a  specified  version  of a Source Code Control System
       (SCCS) file

       get [-g] [-L] [-m] [-n] [-p] [-s] [-t] [-c cutoff] [-i list]  [-r  SID]
       [-w string] [-x list] file... | -

       get  [-a	 seq_num]  [-b]	 [-e] [-k] [-s] [-t] [-c cutoff] [-i list] [-r
       SID] [-x list] [-l  | -lp] file... | -

       Interfaces documented on this reference page conform to industry	 stan‐
       dards as follows:

       get:  XCU5.0

       Refer  to  the  standards(5)  reference page for more information about
       industry standards and associated tags.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  Specifies the delta sequence  number  of  the  SCCS  file
       delta  (version)	 that  is be retrieved.	 This keyletter is used by the
       comb command.  Specifies that the delta to be created should have a SID
       in a new branch.	 The new SID is numbered according to the rules stated
       in the SID Determination Table.	You  can  use  -b  only	 with  the  -e
       option.	It is only necessary when you want to branch from a leaf delta
       (a delta without a successor).  Attempting to create a delta at a  non‐
       leaf delta automatically results in a branch, even if the b header flag
       is not set.  If you do not specify the b header flag in the SCCS	 file,
       get  ignores  the  -b option because the file does not allow branching.
       Specifies a cutoff date and time, in the form:  yy[mm[dd[hh[mm[ss]]]]].
       The  get	 command includes no deltas to the SCCS file created after the
       specified cutoff in the g-file.	The values of any unspecified items in
       cutoff  default to their maximum allowable values.  Thus, a cutoff date
       and time specified with only the	 year  (yy)  would  specify  the  last
       month,  day, hour, minute, and second of that year.  Any number of non‐
       numeric characters can separate the 2-digit items of  the  cutoff  date
       and  time.   This lets you specify a date and time in a number of ways,
       as follows: -c90/9/2,9:00:00 -c"90/9/2 9:00:00" "-c90/9/2 9:00:00"

	      [Tru64 UNIX]  If the year (yy) field is less than 69 get	inter‐
	      prets it as being in the twenty-first century, i.e. 20yy. If the
	      year is greater than or equal to 69, get interprets it as	 being
	      in  the twentieth century, i.e. 19yy.  Indicates that the g-file
	      being created is to be edited by the  user  applying  get.   The
	      changes  are  recorded later with the delta command.  The get -e
	      command creates a p-file that prevents other users from  issuing
	      another  get  -e	and  editing  a	 second g-file on the same SID
	      before delta is run.  The owner of the file  can	override  this
	      restriction  by  allowing	 joint editing on the same SID through
	      the use of the admin command with the -fj option.	 Other	users,
	      with  permission, can obtain read-only copies by using get with‐
	      out the -e option.  The get -e command enforces SCCS  file  pro‐
	      tection  specified  via  the ceiling, floor, and authorized user
	      list in the SCCS file (see the admin(1) reference	 page).	  Sup‐
	      presses  the  actual  retrieval of text from the SCCS file.  Use
	      the -g option primarily to create an l-file  or  to  verify  the
	      existence	 of  a	particular  SID.   Do  not  use it with the -e
	      option.  Specifies a list of deltas to be included in  the  cre‐
	      ation  of	 a g-file.  The SID list format consists of a combina‐
	      tion of individual SIDs separated by commas and SID ranges indi‐
	      cated by two SIDs separated by a hyphen, as shown in the follow‐
	      ing example: get -e -i1.4,1.5,1.6 s.file

	      get -e -i1.4-1.6 s.file

	      You can specify the SCCS Identification of a delta in  any  form
	      shown  in	 the SID Specified column of the SID Determination Ta‐
	      ble.  The get command interprets partial SIDs as	shown  in  the
	      SID  Retrieved  column  of the table.  Suppresses replacement of
	      identification keywords in the g-file by their values.   The  -k
	      option  is  implied  by the -e option.  If you accidentally ruin
	      the g-file created by get with an -e option, you can recreate it
	      by  reissuing the get command with the -k option in place of the
	      -e option.  Writes a delta summary to an l-file.

	      If you specify -lp, get interprets it as -L. The -lp  option  is
	      obsolete.	  Writes  a  delta summary to standard output and does
	      not create an l-file.  All informative output that  normally  is
	      written to standard output is written to standard error instead,
	      unless the -s option is specified, in  which  case  it  is  sup‐
	      pressed.	Use this option to determine which deltas were used to
	      create the g-file currently in use.  Writes before each line  of
	      text  in	the g-file the SID of the delta that inserted the line
	      into  the	 SCCS  file.   The  format  is	as  follows:  SID  tab
	      line_of_text  Writes  the	 value	of the %M% keyword before each
	      line of text in the g-file.  The format is  the  value  of  %M%,
	      followed	by  a horizontal tab, followed by the text line.  When
	      both the -m and -n options are used, the format is  as  follows:
	      %M%_value	 tab   SID   tab  line_of_text Writes the text created
	      from the SCCS file to standard output and does not create	 a  g-
	      file.   The  get	command sends output normally sent to standard
	      output to file descriptor 2 (standard error)  instead.   If  you
	      specify  the  -s option with the -p option, output normally sent
	      to standard output does not appear anywhere.  Do not use -p with
	      the  -e  option.	Specifies the SCCS identification string (SID)
	      of the SCCS file version to be created.  Shows what version of a
	      file is created and the SID of the pending delta as functions of
	      the SID specified.  Suppresses all output	 normally  written  to
	      standard	output.	  Error	 messages  (written to standard error)
	      remain unaffected.  Accesses the most recently created delta  in
	      a	 given	release	 or release and level.	Without the -r option,
	      get accesses the	most  recent  delta  regardless	 of  its  SID.
	      [Tru64  UNIX]  Substitutes string for the %W% keyword in g-files
	      not intended for editing.	 Excludes a list of deltas in the cre‐
	      ation of a file.	See the -i option for the SID list format.

       The path name of an existing SCCS file or directory.

	      The  options  and	 files	can be specified in any order, and all
	      options apply to all named files.	 If you specify a directory in
	      place  of	 file,	get  performs the requested actions on all the
	      files in the directory that begin with the s.  prefix.   If  you
	      specify  a  -  (dash) in place of file, get reads standard input
	      and interprets each line as the name of an SCCS  file.  The  get
	      command  continues  to  read input until it reads an End-of-File

       The get command reads the specified versions of the named  SCCS	files,
       and  creates  a	text file (the g-file), for each file according to the
       specified options. The command then writes each text  file  to  a  file
       with the same name as the original SCCS file without the s.  (s period)

       If the effective user has write permission in the directory  containing
       the  SCCS  files	 but the real user does not, then only one file can be
       named when the -e option is used.

   SCCS Files
       In addition to the file with the s.  prefix (the s-file), get can  cre‐
       ate  several  auxiliary files:  the g-file, l-file, p-file, and z-file.
       These files are identified by their tag, which is the letter before the
       dash.   The  get command names auxiliary files by replacing the leading
       s.  in the SCCS file name with the proper tag, except for  the  g-file,
       which is named by removing the s.  prefix.  So, for a file named s.sam‐
       ple, the auxiliary file names would be sample, l.sample, p.sample,  and

       These  files  serve  the following purposes: Contains the original file
       text and all the changes (deltas) made to the file.  It	also  includes
       information  about  who	can  change  the  file	contents, who has made
       changes, when those changes were made, and what the changes were.   You
       cannot edit this file directly, because the file is read-only.  It con‐
       tains the information needed by the SCCS commands to build the  g-file,
       the  file you can edit.	A text file that contains the text of the SCCS
       file version that you specify with the -r option (or the	 latest	 trunk
       version	by  default).  You can edit this file directly.	 When you have
       made all your changes and you want to make a new delta to the file, you
       can  then apply the delta command to the file.  The get command creates
       the g-file in the current directory.

	      The get command creates a g-file whenever it runs, unless the -g
	      option  or  the  -p  option is specified.	 The real user owns it
	      (not the effective user).	 If you do not specify the -k  or  the
	      -e option, the file is read-only.	 If the -k or the -e option is
	      specified, the owner has write permission for the	 g-file.   You
	      must  have write permission in the current directory to create a
	      g-file.  The get command creates the l-file (a  read-only	 file)
	      when  the	 -l  option is specified.  It contains a table showing
	      which deltas were applied in generating the  g-file.   You  must
	      have  write  permission in the current directory to create an l-

	      Lines in the l-file have the following format: A	space  if  the
	      delta  was  applied; an * (asterisk) appears otherwise.  A space
	      if the delta was applied or was not applied and  ignored;	 an  *
	      appears  if  the	delta  was not applied and was not ignored.  A
	      code indicating a special reason why the delta was  or  was  not
	      applied:	Included  or excluded normally.	 Included using the -i
	      option.  Excluded using the -x option.  Cut  off	using  the  -c
	      option.	The SID.  The date and time the file was created.  The
	      user name of person who created the delta.

	      Comments and MR data follow on subsequent	 lines,	 indented  one
	      horizontal tab character.	 A blank line ends each entry.

	      For  example,  for a delta cut off with the -c option, the entry
	      in the l-file might be: **C 1.3 90/03/13 12:44:16 pat

	      The entry for the initial delta might be: 1.1 90/02/27  15:42:20
	      pat date and time created 90/02/27 15:42:20 by pat

	      The  get command creates the p-file when the -e or the -k option
	      is specified.  The p-file passes information  resulting  from  a
	      get -e to a delta command. The p-file also prevents a subsequent
	      execution of get with an -e option for the same SID until	 delta
	      is  run or the joint edit keyletter (j) is set in the SCCS file.
	      The j keyletter allows several gets on the same SID.  The p-file
	      is created in the directory containing the SCCS file.  To create
	      a p-file in the SCCS directory, you must have  write  permission
	      in  that	directory.  The permission code of the p-file is read-
	      only to all but its owner, and it	 is  owned  by	the  effective

	      The  p-file  contains: The current SID.  The SID of new delta to
	      be created.  The user name.  The date and time of the get.   The
	      -i option, if it was present.  The -x option, if it was present.

	      The  p-file contains an entry with the preceding information for
	      each pending delta for the file.	No two lines have the same new
	      delta  SID.  The z-file is a lock mechanism against simultaneous
	      updates.	It contains the binary process number of the get  com‐
	      mand that created it.  It is created in the directory containing
	      the SCCS file and exists only while the get command is running.

       When you use the get command, it displays the SID  being	 accessed  and
       the  number of lines created from the SCCS file.	 If you specify the -e
       option, the SID of the delta to be made appears after the SID  accessed
       and  before  the number of lines created.  If you specify more than one
       file, or a directory, or standard input, get  displays  the  file  name
       before each file is processed.  If you specify the -i option, get lists
       included deltas below the word Included.	 If you specify the -x option,
       get lists excluded deltas below the word Excluded.

   Getting Read-Only File Versions
       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  get	command	 creates read-only versions as well as
       editable versions of a file.  Use read-only versions of files any  time
       the  application	 does  not  require that the file contents be changed.
       Read-only versions of source code files can be compiled. Text files can
       be displayed or printed from read-only versions.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  difference  between an editable version and a read-
       only version is important when using identification keywords.   Identi‐
       fication keywords are symbols that are expanded to some text value when
       the get command retrieves the file as read-only.	 In editable versions,
       keywords are not expanded.  Identification keywords can appear anywhere
       in an SCCS file (see the prs(1) reference page for further  information
       on identification keywords).

   Identification Keywords
       You can use identification keywords in your files to insert identifying
       information.  These keywords are replaced by their values in the g-file
       when get is invoked without the -e or -k option.	 The following identi‐
       fication keywords can be used in SCCS files:

       Identifying Values: Module name: the value of the m flag	 in  the  SCCS
       file  with  the	leading s. removed The SID (%R%.%L%.%B%.%S%) of the g-
       file Release Level Branch Sequence Date of the current  get  (yy/mm/dd)
       Date  of	 the current get (mm/dd/yy) Time of the current get (hh:mm:ss)
       Date newest applied delta was created (yy/mm/dd)	 Date  newest  applied
       delta  was  created  (mm/dd/yy)	Time  newest applied delta was created

       Names: SCCS file name Full path name of the SCCS file

       Flag Value: The value of the q flag in the file Module type: the	 value
       of the t flag in the SCCS file

       Line  Number: The current line number.  This keyword is for identifying
       messages output by the program.	It is not intended for	use  on	 every
       line to provide sequence numbers.

       Constructing  what  Strings: A shorthand notation for constructing what
       strings of the following type. Its value is the characters and  keylet‐

	      %W%  =  %Z%%M%<tab>%I% The 4-character string @(#) recognized by
	      the what command.	 Another shorthand notation  for  constructing
	      what strings.  Its value is the keyletters:

	      %A% = %Z%%Y% %M% %I%%Z%

       The  following table illustrates how get determines the SID of the file
       it retrieves, and what the pending SID is.   The	 column	 SID Specified
       shows  the  various  ways  the SID can be specified with the -r option.
       The next two columns illustrate the various conditions that can	exist,
       including  whether  or  not the -b option is used with the get -e.  The
       SID Retrieved column indicates the SID of the file that makes up the g-
       file.   The  SID of Delta to be Created column indicates the SID of the
       version that will be created when delta is applied.

   SID Determination Table
       SID Specified	  -b Used   Other  Condi‐   SID Retrieved   SID	     of
				    tions			    Delta to be
       None (1)		  No	    R defaults to   mR.mL	    mR.(mL+1)
       None (1)		  Yes	    R defaults to   mR.mL	    mR.mL.(mB+1).1
       (R)elease	  No	    R > mR	    mR.mL	    R.1 (3)
       R		  No	    R = mR	    mR.mL	    mR.(mL+1)
       R		  Yes	    R > mR	    mR.mL	    mR.mL.(mB+1).1
       R		  Yes	    R = mR	    mR.mL	    mR.mL.(mB+1).1
       R		  N/A	    R < mR and	R   hR.mL (4)	    hR.mL.(mB+1).1
				    does      not
       R		  N/A	    R < mR and	R   R.mL	    R.mL.(mB+1).1
       R.(L)evel	  No	    No trunk suc‐   R.L		    R.(L+1)
       R.L		  yes	    No trunk suc‐   R.L		    R.L(mB+1).1
       R.L		  N/A	    Trunk succes‐   R.L		    R.L.(mB+1).1
				    sor	       in
				    release >= R
       R.L.(B)ranch	  No	    No	   branch   R.L.B.mS	    R.L.B.(mS+1)
       R.L.B		  Yes	    No	   branch   R.L.B.mS	    R.L.(mB+1).1
       R.L.B.(S)equence	  No	    No	   branch   R.L.B.S	    R.L.B.(S+1)
       R.L.B.S		  Yes	    No	   branch   R.L.B.S	    R.L.(mB+1).1
       R.L.B.S		  N/A	    Branch   suc‐   R.L.B.S	    R.L.(mB+1).1

       (1) Applies only if the d (default SID) flag is not present in the file
       (see admin(1) reference page).

       (2) The mR indicates the maximum existing release.

       (3) Forces creation of the first delta in a new release.

       (4) The hR is the highest existing release that is lower than the spec‐
       ified, nonexistent, release R.

       The obsolescent form of the -l option uses the optional option-argument
       that cannot be presented as a separate argument (-lp). When the -l  and
       -p  options  are	 both needed, the you should avoid ambiguity by giving
       them as separate arguments (-l -p), reversing their sequence  (-pl)  or
       separating them with other options in a single argument (such as -ltp).

       The  following  exit  values  are  returned: Successful completion.  An
       error occurred.

       The following examples  and  descriptions  illustrate  the  differences
       between	read-only  and editable versions of SCCS files.	 To insert the
       current date and SID in a file, enter  the  following  symbols  in  the
       file: %H% %I%

	      The %H% symbol is for the current date and the %I% symbol is for
	      the SID.	When get retrieves a file as editable, it  leaves  the
	      symbols  in  the	file  and does not do text value substitution.
	      The following example builds the version with the	 highest  SID,
	      because no version of the file is specified: $ ls


	      $ get s.test.c

	      3.5 59 lines

	      $ ls

	      s.test.c test.c

	      In  the  next  two  command lines, the -r option specifies which
	      version to get: $ get -r1.3 s.test.c

	      1.3 67 lines

	      $ get -r1.3.1.4 s.test.c 50 lines If you specify only the release number  of  the
	      SID,  get	 finds	the  file  with	 the highest level within that
	      release number: $ get -r2 s.test.c

	      2.7 21 lines

	      If the SID specified is greater than the highest	existing  SID,
	      get  retrieves  the  highest existing SID without complaint.  If
	      the SID specified is lower than the lowest  existing  SID,  SCCS
	      writes  an  error message and fetches nothing.  In the following
	      example, release 2 is the lowest existing	 release:  $  get  -r1
	      s.test.c ERROR [s.test.c] The SID specified does not exist.  Use
	      the sact command to check the P-file for existing	 SID  numbers.
	      (cm20)  The -t option gets the top version in a given release or
	      level. The top version is the most recently created delta, inde‐
	      pendent  of  its	location.   In	the  next example, the highest
	      existing delta in release 3 is 3.5, while the most recently cre‐
	      ated delta is $ get -t -r3 s.test.c 46 lines

	      All  of the previous examples use the get command to get a read-
	      only file.  To create a copy of the file that can be  edited  to
	      create  a	 new  delta, use the -e option.	 The get command works
	      differently when using the -e option (see also the admin(1) ref‐
	      erence page). Use unget to undo the effect of the get -e command
	      and discard any changes made to the file before a delta is  cre‐
	      ated.   The  following example shows how to use the -e option: $


	      $ get -e s.test.c

	      1.3 new delta 1.4 67 lines

	      $ ls

	      p.test.c s.test.c test.c

	      The working file is test.c.  If you edit	test.c	and  save  the
	      changes with the delta command, SCCS creates a new delta with an
	      SID of 1.4.  The file p.test.c is a temporary file used by  SCCS
	      to  keep	track  of file versions.  In the previous example, you
	      could have used the -r option to get a specific version.	Assum‐
	      ing  delta  1.3  already	exists	and  is	 the  highest delta in
	      release, the following three uses of the get command produce the
	      same  results:  $ get -e s.test.c $ get -e -r1 s.test.c $ get -e
	      -r1.3 s.test.c To start using a new (higher  in  value)  release
	      number,  use get with the -r option and specify a release number
	      greater than the highest existing release number.	 In  the  next
	      example, release 2 does not yet exist: $ get -e -r2 s.test.c

	      1.3 new delta 2.1 67 lines

	      Notice that get indicates the version of the new delta that will
	      be created if the delta command stores changes to the SCCS file.

	      If the example did not include the -e option,  get  would	 build
	      the  highest  existing  SID  (1.3)  and would not indicate a new
	      delta, even though the -r2 option requests a  version  2.1.   To
	      create a branch delta, use the -r option and specify the release
	      and level where the branch occurs.  In the next example,	deltas
	      1.3 and 1.4 already exist: $ get -e -r1.3 s.test.c

	      1.3 new delta 67 lines

	      Create deltas on branches using the same methods.

	      Several different editable versions of an SCCS file can exist as
	      long as each one is in a different directory.  If you try to get
	      the  same	 editable  file	 version  more than once into the same
	      directory without using the delta command, SCCS writes an	 error

	      To  get the same editable file version more than once, set the j
	      option in the SCCS file with the admin command. Set the j option
	      using  the  -f  option.	You  can then get the same SID several
	      times from different directories, creating a separate  file  for
	      each  get	 command.   Although the files originate from a single
	      SID, SCCS gives each of them a unique new SID.  In the following
	      example,	the  pwd command displays the current directory.  Then
	      the j option is set with the admin command: $ pwd


	      $ admin -fj s.test.c Then use the get command  to	 retrieve  the
	      latest version of the file: $ get -e s.test.c

	      1.1  new	delta 1.2 5 lines Change to directory /u/new and issue
	      the get command again: $ cd /u/new $ get -e /u/dan/sccs/s.test.c

	      1.1 WARNING: 1.1 1.2 dan	90/08/21  09:03:45  is	being  edited.
	      This  if an informational message only. (ge18) new delta
	      5 lines

	      Notice that SCCS creates two deltas, 1.2 and,  from  the
	      single  original file version of 1.1.  The p.test.c file shows a
	      separate entry for each version currently in use.	 The  p.test.c
	      file  remains  in the directory until you take care of both file
	      versions with either the delta command  or  the  unget  command.
	      (Note that you must have write permission in both directories to
	      issue the preceding commands.)

       The following environment variables affect the execution of  get:  Pro‐
       vides  a	 default value for the internationalization variables that are
       unset or null. If LANG is unset or null, the corresponding  value  from
       the  default  locale is used.  If any of the internationalization vari‐
       ables contain an invalid setting, the utility behaves as if none of the
       variables  had been defined.  If set to a non-empty string value, over‐
       rides the values	 of  all  the  other  internationalization  variables.
       Determines  the	locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of
       text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to	multi‐
       byte  characters	 in arguments and input files).	 Determines the locale
       for the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to  standard
       error  and informative messages written to standard output (or standard
       error if the -p option is used.	Determines  the	 location  of  message
       catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

       Commands:  admin(1),   cdc(1),  comb(1),	 delta(1),  prs(1),  rmdel(1),
       sact(1), sccs(1), sccsdiff(1), sccshelp(1), unget(1), val(1), what(1)

       Files:  sccsfile(4)

       Standards:  standards(5)

       Programming Support Tools


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