EXIT man page on Archlinux

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EXIT(3)			   Linux Programmer's Manual		       EXIT(3)

       exit - cause normal process termination

       #include <stdlib.h>

       void exit(int status);

       The  exit() function causes normal process termination and the value of
       status & 0377 is returned to the parent (see wait(2)).

       All functions registered with atexit(3) and on_exit(3) are  called,  in
       the  reverse  order  of their registration.  (It is possible for one of
       these functions to use atexit(3) or on_exit(3)  to  register  an	 addi‐
       tional  function	 to be executed during exit processing; the new regis‐
       tration is added to the front of the list of functions that  remain  to
       be  called.)  If one of these functions does not return (e.g., it calls
       _exit(2), or kills itself with a signal), then none  of	the  remaining
       functions is called, and further exit processing (in particular, flush‐
       ing of stdio(3) streams) is abandoned.  If a function has  been	regis‐
       tered  multiple	times using atexit(3) or on_exit(3), then it is called
       as many times as it was registered.

       All open stdio(3) streams are flushed and  closed.   Files  created  by
       tmpfile(3) are removed.

       The  C standard specifies two constants, EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE,
       that may be passed to exit() to	indicate  successful  or  unsuccessful
       termination, respectively.

       The exit() function does not return.

   Multithreading (see pthreads(7))
       The exit() function uses a global variable that is not protected, so it
       is not thread-safe.

       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001, C89, C99.

       It is undefined what happens if one of the functions  registered	 using
       atexit(3)  and on_exit(3) calls either exit() or longjmp(3).  Note that
       a call to execve(2) removes registrations created using	atexit(3)  and

       The  use of EXIT_SUCCESS and EXIT_FAILURE is slightly more portable (to
       non-UNIX environments) than the use of 0 and some nonzero value like  1
       or -1.  In particular, VMS uses a different convention.

       BSD has attempted to standardize exit codes; see the file <sysexits.h>.

       After  exit(),  the  exit  status  must	be  transmitted	 to the parent
       process.	 There are three cases.	 If the parent has  set	 SA_NOCLDWAIT,
       or has set the SIGCHLD handler to SIG_IGN, the status is discarded.  If
       the parent was waiting on the child, it is notified of the exit status.
       In  both cases the exiting process dies immediately.  If the parent has
       not indicated that it is not interested in the exit status, but is  not
       waiting,	 the  exiting  process turns into a "zombie" process (which is
       nothing but a container for the single byte representing the exit  sta‐
       tus)  so	 that the parent can learn the exit status when it later calls
       one of the wait(2) functions.

       If the implementation supports the SIGCHLD signal, this signal is  sent
       to  the	parent.	  If  the parent has set SA_NOCLDWAIT, it is undefined
       whether a SIGCHLD signal is sent.

       If the process is a session leader and its controlling terminal is  the
       controlling  terminal  of  the  session, then each process in the fore‐
       ground process group of this controlling terminal is sent a SIGHUP sig‐
       nal,  and  the terminal is disassociated from this session, allowing it
       to be acquired by a new controlling process.

       If the exit of the process causes a process group to  become  orphaned,
       and  if any member of the newly orphaned process group is stopped, then
       a SIGHUP signal followed by a SIGCONT  signal  will  be	sent  to  each
       process	in  this  process group.  See setpgid(2) for an explanation of
       orphaned process groups.

       _exit(2), setpgid(2), wait(2), atexit(3), on_exit(3), tmpfile(3)

       This page is part of release 3.65 of the Linux  man-pages  project.   A
       description  of	the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux				  2014-03-25			       EXIT(3)

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